41-310 Assignment 2 



Player 2
Left Right
Player 1: Top 4, 4, 0, 6
Bottom 6,0 1,1
For the game as shown above,
a. Which strategy is the dominant strategy for P1?
b. Write down the dominant strategy equilibrium.
c. The dominant strategy equilibrium payoffs (1,1) are not optimal. Is
It is possible to change the game with a transfer (or penalty) between the two.
players so that the dominant strategy equilibrium of the new game becomes
efficient? Find the transfer and represent the new game after the transfer.
2. (GHG) There are 40 identical countries in the world. Facing a decision
making the problem of maintaining steady economic growth and reducing
GHGs each have two choices: Reduce GHGs (R) and not reduce
GHGs(NR). If a country chooses NR, then the economy grows faster and
The faster growth generates an additional estimated economic value of $20.
billion dollars. But it increases the level of GHGs in the atmosphere, and its
negative impact imposes a cost of $1 billion on each and every country.
in the world. If a country selects R, then its economy grows slower, the
Slower growth generates an additional estimated economic value of only 5
billion dollars. In this case, there is no increase in GHGs in the atmosphere.
and hence no negative impact.
(a) Show that R is dominated by NR in a country.
(b) Find the total social maximum surplus and the minimum surplus.
(or maximum loss).
(c) Explain the reason why the minimum surplus is not the total maximum.
surplus is likely to be the outcome these countries collectively select.
3. Two countries, country 1 and country 2, select either abate or pollute.
Each country has two types of individuals: Ninenine and Topone. Individuals
receive two types of gains (or losses): economic gain and non-economic gain.
Assume that Ninenines only receive non-economic gain and Topones only
receive economic gain.
If there are no Topones and only Ninenines in both countries, then the
game is represented as shown below.
Country 2
Abate Pollute
Country 1 Abate 0.5, 0.5, 0.4, 0
Pollute 0, 0.4, -0.1, -0.1
If there are only Topones without Ninenines in both countries, then the
game is represented as shown below.
Country 2
Abate Pollute
Country 1 Abate: -8, -9, 12
Pollute 12, -9 10, 10
a. Suppose that there are 50 Ninenines and 1 Topone. Find or represent
the game that the two countries are playing. And find the dominant strategy.
equilibrium of the game.
b. If the non-economic gains are ignored in each country, what will be
the expected choices made by the countries? Explain why it is suboptimal.
c. Is the Prisoner’s Dilemma game an appropriate game that describes
the problem faced by the two countries here? Explain.
4. Individuals A and B both enjoy flowers (public good). The MWTP curves
of flowers are given by MW T P(A) = 60-x for A and MW T P(B) = 120-2x.
for B, where x is the level of flowers. Suppose individual A is the only one.
who produces good (Only A knows how to garden.) The marginal cost
(MC) of producing the good is given by MC = x.
1. Find the level of flowers that maximizes welfare.
2. Find the socially efficient level of flower
3. Discuss why the inefficient allocation obtained in 1 is a likely outcome.
and how a subsidy to A may lead the economy to a socially optimal
5. Suppose that there are two countries in the world, C1 and C2, whose
The marginal benefit curves are given as follows: MB1 = 100 G1, and MB2 =
60-2G2, where G1 and G2 are the levels of emission by C1 and C2, respectively.
Both countries agreed on putting a cap on the level of CO2 emissions, 50
million (mega) tons each and 100 total.
(1) Find the efficient distribution of 100 units of the total emission.
(2) Suppose that the international market price for carbon is given by
$10 per unit, i.e., an unlimited amount of carbon credits is bought and sold.
at a price of $10. How many units of carbon credits will C1 buy or sell, and how
How many units of carbon credits will C2 buy or sell?
(3) Suppose there is a demand from individuals who purchase the permits.
to reduce GHGs. The demand is given by D (or G3) = 20.
p. Find the
equilibrium market price, and the distribution of permits, G1, G2, and G3 at
the equilibrium price.

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