Arts And Crafts

 

  1. a) The National Romanticism was the new movement in architecture and design that was informed by both the Art Nouveau and the Arts and Crafts movement
  2. b) The aims of National Romanticism were influenced by the ideals of Arts and Crafts. i.e. The aim be an expression of local, regional and national identity.
  3. c) National Romanticism is romantic because it identified with people. The architecture and design was an expression of identity. It was therefore able to evoke emotions hence romantic.
  4. a) The Wiener Werkstatte or rather Vienna Workshops was a production community established by Josef Hoffmann (1870-1956) and Koloman Moser (1868-1918). It was founded on the model of Arts and Crafts workshop but concentrated more with aesthetic than social reform. Its objects were exquisitely made and were produced in small numbers. It aimed to appeal to the refined tastes of those in the Viennese society that were of the upper and the middle class. Its design was in the framework of Gesamtkunstwerk.
  5. b) It was more concerned with aesthetic reform
  6. c) It was designing for the upper and the middle class Viennese society in order to appeal to their refined tastes. It was similar to the Arts and Crafts movement in that it was founded in the model of the Arts and Crafts and workshop.
  7. d) The stylistic sources or inspirations of Wiener Werkstatte were the solidity and the refinement of the Biedermeier from the early nineteenth century characterized by stylized flowers, silhouettes of classical columns and contrasts of dark and light colors.
  8. e) Gesamtkunstwerk translates to total work of art. It refers to a work of art that utilizes many forms of art.
  9. a) Unlike the Victorian mainstream, Scottish Art nouveau used the concept of Gesamtkunstwerk. They however were both based on the Art and Crafts ideas. Victorian mainstream was more exotic having some Italian influence. While the history of the Victorian mainstream is in the 18th century, the Mackintosh art took form in the early 1900s.
  10. b) Scottish Art was based on Art and Craft movement but however mostly involved gender coding. The bedrooms, drawing rooms, and music salons were feminine while the dining rooms, libraries and halls were masculine.
  11. c) The Aesthetic movement was quite similar to Mackintosh Art as they both focused on the aesthetic values or rather being beautiful especially the feminine aspect of Scottish Art. However the aesthetic movement failed to follow the Art and Crafts ideals by ignoring the deeper meaning of Art and rather concentrating on the outer beauty only. They were however both European movements.
  12. a) Organic was a concept of design by Frank Lloyd Wright where a building’s interiors, furnishing, and environment formed a single entity or what can be called a complementary decoration.
  13. b) The relationship is that organic design follows idea of Gesamtkunstwerk by incorporating art forms into one.
  14. c) The term closest to the idea of organic in modern art is that form follows function. Or rather form and function are one.
  15. a) In North America, Romantic Nationalism was established in a variety of American revival styles such as the Colonial revival.
  16. b) There are similarities such as the fact that the goods were produced by skilled craftsmen whose engagement with their work was spiritual as well as manual. Also the interest in historic preservation

 

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