Assignment: Evidence-Based Project, Part 2: Advanced Levels Of Clinical Inquiry And Systematic Reviews



Assignment: Evidence-Based Project, Part 2: Advanced Levels Of Clinical Inquiry And Systematic Reviews

Your quest to purchase a new car begins with an identification of the factors important to you. As you conduct a search of cars that rate high on those factors, you collect evidence and try to understand the extent of that evidence. A report that suggests a certain make and model of automobile has high mileage is encouraging. But who produced that report? How valid is it? How was the data collected, and what was the sample size?

In this Assignment, you will delve deeper into clinical inquiry by closely examining your PICO(T) question. You also begin to analyze the evidence you have collected.

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To Prepare:

  • Review the Resources and identify a clinical issue of interest that can form the basis of a clinical inquiry.
  • Develop a PICO(T) question to address the clinical issue of interest you identified in Module 2 for the Assignment. This PICOT question will remain the same for the entire course.
  • Use the key words from the PICO(T) question you developed and search at least four different databases in the Walden Library. Identify at least four relevant systematic reviews or other filtered high-level evidence, which includes meta-analyses, critically-appraised topics (evidence syntheses), critically-appraised individual articles (article synopses). The evidence will not necessarily address all the elements of your PICO(T) question, so select the most important concepts to search and find the best evidence available.
  • Reflect on the process of creating a PICO(T) question and searching for peer-reviewed research.

Part 2: Advanced Levels of Clinical Inquiry and Systematic Reviews

Create a 6- to 7-slide PowerPoint presentation in which you do the following:

  • Identify and briefly describe your chosen clinical issue of interest.
  • Describe how you developed a PICO(T) question focused on your chosen clinical issue of interest.
  • Identify the four research databases that you used to conduct your search for the peer-reviewed articles you selected.
  • Provide APA citations of the four relevant peer-reviewed articles at the systematic-reviews level related to your research question. If there are no systematic review level articles or meta-analysis on your topic, then use the highest level of evidence peer reviewed article.
  • Describe the levels of evidence in each of the four peer-reviewed articles you selected, including an explanation of the strengths of using systematic reviews for clinical research. Be specific and provide examples.
  • WK3AssignBrownP..doc

    Student’s Name Pamella Brown


    Adverse effects of electroconvulsive therapy on cognitive performance

    Matrix Worksheet Template

    Use this document to complete Part 2 of the Module 2 Assessment, Evidence-Based Project, Part 1: An Introduction to Clinical Inquiry and Part 2: Research Methodologies

    Full citation of selected article Article #1 Article #2 Article #3 Article #4
    Bioque, Miquel, Mac‐Dowell, Karina S.,Meseguer,Macau, Elisabet,Valero, Ricard,Vieta, Eduard,Leza, Juan C.,Bernardo, Miquel.(2019) .Effects of electroconvulsive therapy in the systemic inflammatory balance of patients with severe mental disorder. Psychiatry& Clinical Neurosciences.Vol. 73 Issue 10, p628-635. 8p. 1 Diagram, 2 Charts, 2 Graphs.138990292: ISSN:1323-1316.DOI:10.1111/pcn.12906


    Hirshbein, Laura D. (2010)A History of Electroconvulsive Treatment in Mental Illness . Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences Spring; Vol. 46 (2) .Wiley-Blackwell ISSN: 0022-5061:20100427: EPTOC49733042.DOI:10.1002/jhbs.20431


    Hirshbein, Laura1,Sarvananda & Sharmalie. (2000). History, power, and electricity: American popular magazine accounts of electroconvulsive therapy, 1940–2005. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences. Winter2008, Vol. 44 Issue 1, p1-18. 18p.ISSN: 0022-5061.DOI:10.1002/jhbs.20283


    Why you chose this article and/or how it relates to the clinical issue of interest (include a brief explanation of the ethics of research related to your clinical issue of interest) Our issue of interest is the treatment of dementia using a variety of methods. In this article, there are many tests, which have been performed to treat dementia. There is a brief history, which tells us how many people are on treatment with Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). ECT has previously inadequate understanding, but efficient treatment emerged as a second way to convulsive insulin therapy. In this article, the writer describes that Electroconvulsive therapy was a brutal method that psychiatrists think to control ill persons. This method was used in Africa through which they treat their men became a medical problem. Panic medication is control by positive and negative terminals stick to the person’s temples. That test was conducted on patients who were willing to test themselves on their charges. In the past, it was a common practice for the treatment of dementia. Popular ECT discussions around this time-period have begun to show a vast rate of sarcasm of psychological performance in standard and Electroconvulsive therapy in separate


    Problems associated with mental disorders. The role of ECT, electroconvulsive therapy, and antibodies in the treatment of this disease. It is used mainly in major bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia-related drug-resistant, and depression disorders. Presently, we check a brand new key point in specifically converting the natural immune system. The check or balance of inflammation for important methods includes the pathophysiology’s treatment of these psychiatric illnesses. The subject we selected throughout this study was about treatment and monitoring of mental health. This paper is related to an issue chosen in this way.


    This document sheds light on the effects of (ECT) on the best way to treat mental disorders. Our exciting problem is the treatment of dementia using a variety of methods. Electroconvulsive therapy previously shows that it can be the most efficient treatment for major depressive and catatonic conditions than psychotherapy pharmacotherapy. However, ECT is also linked-through temporary impairment of brain function in medicine. These include therapy for the following shortcomings in orientation, quick memory functionality, attention, right speech, and administrative tasks that last from hours to months in most cases.


    The treatment of dementia is used in a variety of ways. There are various scholars from history that researchers select as a basis. A historian with a sense of history, Reiss offers a variety of “literary” readings to add humor and understanding to our understanding of what he sees as the most significant problem of nineteenth-century Americans: the unconditional self-control of those who seem mentally incompetent to exercise personal freedom. He points out from the outset issue has been hearing beyond the legal and medical circles and has reached the extremities of culture.


    Brief description of the aims of the research of each peer-reviewed article The purpose of the study of this article is to understand the best practices and standard practices used in the treatment of mental disorders. Look from history on the importance and method of treating dementia. Psychological opposition in the last few decades certainly describes the resilience with which he attacks mental illness. The development of medication or depression. Then the formulation and (ECT) development are developed. We test popular ECT magazine presents and shocking treatments from the 1950s to 2005 to understand changes by time as community interaction with Electroconvulsive therapy and the emerging power. Popular ECT presentations become a path for lawyers and opponents to express their point of view on Electroconvulsive treatment and mental health. Knowing how it becomes a common practice for the treatment of mental disorders. Previously Electroconvulsive therapy became a viewpoint for lawyers as critics to express psychological power and provide security to threaten society.



    Many effecting points in the recovery system’s function (immune) system and the check of inflammation like a vital function conclude in the pathophysiology of severe psychiatric illness. Previous Research has shown that the (ECT) changes specific inflammation or the recovery(immune) responses. The study’s purpose is to check the behavior of electroconvulsive therapy on the nuclear transcription factor κB (NF VerB), a key mechanism to control the immune response


    It is the most effective way to treat mental disorders. History is ambiguous in electroconvulsive therapy. -related side important role in psychological functioning shows a lack of consensus in the history of electroconvulsive therapy-related role on its functioning.

    Adverse effects of ECT on brain function.

    It is obtaining enough and to the point data to get perfect conclusions.





    Brief description of the research methodology used Be sure to identify if the methodology used was qualitative quantitative , or a mixed-methods approach. Be specific. The Methodology of Research used in this article is mixed-methods Research.



    Thirty of the patients with major psychiatric disorders receiving ECT treatment at our center have been included. 13 systemic biomarkers related to the NF (VerB) method analyze early two h after one ECT session.



    The cognitive function uses a digital ascending number tapping test (DANTT). It is a psychometric measurement mode. Using a digital ascending number tapping test, the researchers, especially Research on the speed of functioning, high-quality performance, and digital search during treatment of patients aged between 36 to 76 years. They sum up like that ECT does not have different unique characteristics that alter cognitive functioning in those domains up to 2 hours during treatment. That was the main difference from the output of previous Research.


    Mixed Research methodology used in this article.



    A brief description of the strengths of each of the research methodologies used, including reliability and validity of how the methodology was applied in each of the peer-reviewed articles you selected. The use of multidisciplinary Research has provided researchers with history and experimental perspectives on disorders and treatments. A term used by opponents to spread the spread of mental illness by authorizing the control of patients who were brutally treated with shocking therapy. It gives a different account of ECT and its history.


    The study demonstrates electroconvulsive therapy time on the canonical regulation of the congenital recovery (immune) system plus the balance. Such biomarkers can be important for therapeutic response subjects and help understand the natural function of electroconvulsive therapy function. These researches require considerable accuracy of interest in further investigations and the importance of translating this information. ECT’s negative impact on mental functioning has been the object to investigation in many types of Research. The present Research does not give enough and to the point knowledge to make-dependable outputs about the extent and severity of disability in specific areas in mental functioning. Contrary to old researchers, this study did not provide a beneficial change in the loss of post-ECT in selected areas of understanding, namely processing speed, high performance, and visual search as measured by DANNT. These findings suggest that some cognitive factors may be protected in ECT, while other domains, which have been shown to show shortcomings in other studies, can be easily overlooked. The use of the digital ascending number tapping test presented in the analysis of experiments used in old Research such as routing that provides complete scores with no finding local activity in specific cognitive domains is an example of this approach A detailed, comprehensive account of psychoanalysis’s construction from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the end of World War II. Psychoanalysis improved, with ongoing battles.
    General Notes/Comments

    Reference 4

    Sasha S. Getty, Lawrence R. Faziola. (2017).Adverse effects of electroconvulsive therapy on cognitive performance.electroconvulsive therapy, cognitive performance, Mental Illness Vol 9, Iss 2 (2017)& Directory of Open Access Journals.ISSN:2036-7457,2036-7465.DOI:10.4081/mi.2017.7181:

    Matrix Worksheet Template



    © 2018 Laureate Education Inc. 1



    The PICOT question format for Evidence-Based Practices in clinical inquiry

    Student’s name

    Institutional affiliation

    The PICOT question format for Evidence-Based Practices in clinical inquiry

    Clinical issue

    In adult patients with total hip replacements, how effective is patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pain medication compared to PRN usage or ‘when required pain medication in controlling postoperative agony during the perioperative and recovery time?

    Developing PICOT questions, performing keyword searches, and using databases

    The need to have Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) has found its roots in the nursing profession; necessitating challenge for health care decisions that no evidence support (Melnyk, B. M. et al. (2011)). PICOT format question to clinical inquires enables a systematic and consistent approach to the evidence for the inquiry. PICOT is an acronym; P- patient population, I- intervention, C- comparison intervention, O- anticipated outcome, and T- time for achieving the result through the intervention (Davies, K. S. (2011)). For relevant evidence, one should identify the appropriate databases for search. Identifying the hierarchy of evidence for the intervention study helps inaccuracy. Upon determining the database, the next step is to identify and develop keywords that help in searching; the keywords result in more efficiency if one uses vocabulary controlled by the database ((Melnyk, B. M. et al. (2011)). In designing PICOT questions, the comparison intervention, which becomes the control group, needs to point to the standard care or business as usual.

    Peer-review on the clinical issue

    The effective handling of pain is critical to anybody treating patients going through surgery as it has physiological advantages (Garimella, V., & Cellini, C. (2013)). It is a human right. PCA method to pain control gives the patient control over the amount of medication they receive. As both the patient and the clinical personnel setting the computerized injection for the medication undergo proper training, the medication administration is adequate. The patient does not have to endure prolonged pain awaiting PRN medication. The method results in better pain control without increased side effects (Ballantyne, J. C et al. (1993)). Patients prefer PCA methods to the conventional IV “as needed” opioid administration because it is satisfactory. Furthermore, the incidences of opioid-related side effects are similar for those under PCA pain control and the ‘as needed’ approach (Hudcova, J. et al. (2006)).


    Melnyk, B. M., &Fineout-Overholt, E. (Eds.). (, 2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to the best way. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

    Davies, K. S. (2011). Formulating the evidence-based practice question: a review of the frameworks. Evidence-Based Library and Information Practice6(2), 75-80.

    Garimella, V., & Cellini, C. (2013). Postoperative pain control. Clinics in colon and rectal surgery26(3), 191–196.

    Ballantyne, J. C., Carr, D. B., Chalmers, T. C., Dear, K. B., Angelillo, I. F., &Mosteller, F. (1993). Postoperative patient-controlled analgesia: Meta-analyses of initial randomized control trials. Journal of clinical anesthesia5(3), 182-193.

    Hudcova, J., McNicol, E. D., Quah, C. S., Lau, J., & Carr, D. B. (2006). Patient-controlled opioid analgesia versus conventional opioid analgesia for postoperative pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4).


    PICOT question format for Evidence




    in clinical inquiry


    Student’s name


    Institutional aff




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