Criminal Justice

Chapter Five

  1. Neighborhood-based supervision can be described as a supervision strategy which puts more emphasis on several factors including public safety, a partnership with other community agencies, accountability, and beat supervision. It is an improvement over traditional methods as it allows for the probation officers to interact closely with the community. This supervision is most useful where the officer is required to identify legitimate opportunities for the offenders in the community.
  2. Such an assessment assists the offer to understand criminogenic needs, static factors, and dynamic factors related to an offender which is important in developing a program plan. How much a client is expected to do while under supervision is determined by the level of crime committed and the court direction which is all incorporated into the program plan.
  3. Risk prediction scales are rated as 0 for a negative answer and 1 for a positive answer and in some cases 2 for a strong outcome. They include past criminal records such as a prior sentence as a jail to a jail and past official misconduct while incarcerated. Also, family and social support are concerned. Issues here include whether parents have a criminal record, the stability of residence, among others. Neighborhood problems are also assessed including the crime rate and availability of drugs. Substance abuse history is also taken into record. Peer association including gang membership and contact with criminal peers is assessed too. This risk assessment is best used to determine the amount of supervision required for a client.
  4. Caseload is the number of individuals or rather cases, which a given parole or probation officer is responsible for based on their supervision level. The workload is a better method of allocating a probation or parole officer resources because it considers not only the number of clients but also the time each of the clients is predicted to take.
  5. Interstate compact supervision allows for an adult offender to carry out community corrections in a different state according to set out conditions. It is helpful because it allows an offender to be close to relatives and also an offender can still work upon transfer. It might be more difficult for an offender because there are different conditions set out by the receiving state.

Chapter six

  1. Intensive supervision differs from regular supervision in the amount of surveillance. Under intensive supervision, movement of the offender is closely monitored and mostly involves house arrest and frequent and random calls. It is recommended for high-risk offenders.
  2. Drug courts are an excellent idea for offenders with substance abuse problem. However, for high-level drug dealers, then this diversion program is not such offenders and should, therefore, face the criminal court.
  3. For a drug offender to be considered to have failed the drug court program, then one must have withdrawn from the program without a successful completion. It could also result from the offender committing a violent crime. For the therapeutic community, it is a bit different since the program is entirely inpatient hence there is no chance to commit crimes. However, it is still voluntary and should they withdraw without completion; then the offender will have failed the program.
  4. The therapeutic community is more effective for polydrug addictions because of its residential drug treatment program, where an addict devotes one hundred percent of their time to the treatment. Even after the program ends, a period of aftercare is effected to ensure a smooth transition into normal life. On the other hand in drug courts, drug addicts only devote a part of their time to the treatment.
  5. The issues concerning the treatment of offenders with mental illness include requiring medication and therapy. The long-term challenge is reported to be, convincing offenders with mental illness to remain on medication even after reporting that they feel well. Their special cases require being handled by a mental health court where the judge, prosecutor, and probation officer monitor the client.
  6. Yes they should. The treatment through mental health court has been found to be very effective due its individualized approach where the progress of each juvenile would be closely monitored.
  7. Most effective strategies for working with sex offenders include polygraph tests which help reduce the deceit and secrecy associated with these kinds of offenders as well as for supervision through the probation or parole process. Penile plethysmograph is used as a treatment in identifying the gender and ages of the victims to whom a sex offender is attracted to. Sexual urges can also be decreased using prescribed hormones known as depo-provera. Child safety zones are also established where offenders are excluded from, and they may also be prohibited from any pornography.
  8. Yes, it increases public safety. Sex offender registration and community notification alert the community on the whereabouts of the offenders to ensure that the children are well protected as well as the adults. This also discourages offenders from committing another crime.
  9. It is a good policy because it allows for the offenders to be classified by their risk status. The full information about the offender is also captured in the database, and their whereabouts can be easily monitored. It has however been criticized for costing too much to track the offenders, but the benefits of keeping the community safer are immense.
  10. Most offenders who are acting gang members can be supervised effectively by making unannounced visits at home, school, job sites or the known hangouts. They can also be given geographical restrictions and curfew enforcement. Collateral contact with family members, friends, neighbors, and teachers is also a good strategy.
  11. Other offenders who could benefit from specialized caseloads include domestic violence offenders and child protection and welfare services.

Chapter 7

  1. Yes it should. Early termination serves as an incentive for good behavior thus the offender is motivated not to return to crime. The disadvantage is that justice is not fully executed when the offender does not fully pay for his or her crimes by being given early termination. On the other hand, when the probationer serves their entire term, then justice is served. The offender however lacks the motivation for good behavior that comes with an early termination.
  2. After refusing to check in for the first time, I would give the offender a warning. Then if the offender repeats the mistake for a second time, then I would have to file the revocation with the court.
  3. I would employ the neighborhood supervision method that would allow me to interact closely with the community in order to identify the right opportunities for my client. If this should fail to secure the offender work, then I would move to the court to request the modification in conditions of probation to loosen them to allow for more job opportunities.
  4. I would commend the honesty shown by the client. However, that doesn’t mean that there isn’t a problem. I cannot overlook the fact that the client did use drugs. If ignored, the problem might continue. Therefore I would file a case to the court for modification of probation conditions to be made stricter.
  5. Motivational interviewing techniques uses an approach that is non-confrontational, non-argument, and sympathetic. It allows for the client to be treated with fairness, respect, and dignity. The empathy shown towards the client helps deal with unresponsive client behavior
  6. I think failing to check in with the probation officer multiple times is the worst kind of technical violation. This is because it is a complete breach of terms and prevents the supervision of the client. It can result in revocation and ultimately incarceration.
  7. Revocation results in either intensive supervision or jail time for the probationer. In case of intensive supervision, then the probation officer has to modify the program plan as per the court’s directions. In all these, the community remains safer. The same case applies for parolees.
  8. No they don’t. The revocation hearings are too informal and thorough investigations are not done to constitute a due process for the offenders. Instead, the decision of the court is heavily based on the probation officer’s account and the preponderance of the evidence.
  9. Preponderance of the evidence is too low of a proof and is therefore accused of denying offenders due processes. A new standard requiring more proof should be applied to ensure fairness for the client.
  10. Revocation may result in resentencing for offenders by judges or parolees being returned to jails by a parole board. This is what causes increased jail populations hence overcrowding. The alternative to avoid this problem is by recommending intensive supervision instead of sending offenders to jail.
  11. I would go for expedited revocation procedures as they save time and demonstrate a feeling of acceptance and remorse. The parole board might therefore not be so strict in deciding the modification of parole conditions.





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