Calculate the 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) exposure.

For the following research paper assignment, you have been asked to perform an evaluation of employee exposures at a small automobile parts manufacturing facility. The manufacturing processes include two metal presses, two machining stations, three welding stations, a small paint booth, and a shipping/receiving area. There are two employees working at each press, one person working at each machining station, one person working at each welding station, two people working in the paint booth, and four employees working in the shipping/receiving area.
One of the presses is a 2,000-ton press, and the other press is a 200-ton press. The 2,000-ton press is the greatest noise source for the facility. The machining area uses a metal working fluid. The safety data sheet (SDS) for the metal working fluid is attached here. All welding is performed on stainless steel. The painting booth uses a powder coating operation, but the employees use xylene and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) to clean the parts prior to the powder coating operation. At the end of the shift, one of the employees uses 1,3 butadiene to clean the nozzles for the paint booth. The facility uses two electric forklifts to move materials between the production area and the storage warehouse and between the warehouse and the shipping area. All employees work an 8-hour shift.
Part 1:
Using the information on anticipation and control we studied in the textbook, identify the hazards that are present in the facility. In your discussion, explain why you chose the hazards, and describe whether you believe the hazards to be actual hazards or potential hazards (which require further evaluation). Describe the specific location(s) at the facility where the hazards are located, and determine how many employees are potentially at risk in those areas.
Your response for Part 1 should be at least one page in length.
Part 2:
Using the information on evaluation that we studied in the textbook, summarize how you would measure the personal exposures to the hazards that you identified in Part 1. Use the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) website ( or the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) website ( to select the specific sampling and analytical method that would work best to evaluate any chemical hazards you identified. Provide a summary of the sampling media you would use, include the sampling flow rate, discuss how long you would sample, and explain how you would calibrate the sampling train. Include a discussion about why you selected the specific sampling and analytical method.
Your response to Part 2 should be at least one page in length.
Part 3:
Access the attached sampling results here. For each set of results, perform the following actions:
Calculate the 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) exposure.
Compare the results to the appropriate OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL). Determine which results exceed an established OSHA PEL.
Write a one-page summary of the sampling results; document the exposures that exceeded an OSHA PEL, and identify those areas that you believe will require the application of controls to reduce risk. Include your calculations, include a list of the OSHA PELs you compared the results to, and explain how you decided that an exposure exceeded an OSHA PEL.

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