Case Study: Diabetes Mellitus and the Metabolic Syndrome

Case Study: Diabetes Mellitus and the Metabolic Syndrome
A 48-year-old woman is admitted to the emergency room. Her family states she
has been ill for 5 days with vomiting and diarrhea. She has been unable to take
fluids for the past 2 days. She has no past major medical problems. Family
history is positive for type 2 diabetes in her mother and sister. She takes no
On physical examination:
BP 110/80, P 96, R 22, BMI 34
Skin: dry with decreased turgor
HEENT: oral mucous membranes are dry
Lungs: clear to auscultation
Heart: regular rhythm with no murmur
Abdomen: soft bowel sounds present, no masses
On admission, the following laboratory tests were done:
Fasting blood sugar 250
Total cholesterol 265
Triglycerides 185
High Density Lipoprotein 35
Specific gravity 1.028
Ketones positive
The physician made a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
1. Reviewing the above history, physical examination, and laboratory data, which
of the findings support the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes?
2. This is a new diagnosis for the patient and the nurse in her teaching needs to
describe the pathophysiology of the disease. Provide a description of the
important information that should be included.

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