Product Liability with Guns

Pick one or two of these conditions and explore in depth Brenkert’s reasoning behind including them in determining “social product liability.” In your analysis, raise at least one potential complication or objection to the condition(s) you are examining in Brenkert’s argument. Conclude your essay by giving at least one substantial paragraph of your own critique of his overall proposal for expanding our notion of liability to include “social products liability”. The Reading for Brenkert is 10.2 on Page 291 found in the book Contemporary issues in Business ethics

The Boy in the Striped Pajamas

The Boy in the Striped Pajamas

Chapter 1

The chapter introduces readers to the family who is going to be the center of the story. At the center of the family, is a nine-year-old boy Bruno, who is the main character in the story. In this Chapter, Bruno is introduced as an innocent character who is confused by the events occurring in his family.

Chapter 2

In this chapter, the family is in transit and is moving from Berlin to Auschwitz, Germany. Just like chapter one, the central character in this chapter is Bruno. Bruno seems confused about the new location. Although the new house is quite lavish, Bruno misses their original home. Bruno’s confusion is symbolic of the confusion created in the entire story.

Chapter 3

The chapter features a conversation between Bruno and his sister, Gretel. Since the story is narrated from Bruno’s eyes, readers can only get a good view of Gretel’s character. It features Bruno saying he saw other children playing outside through the window. In this chapter, the character of Gretel is vividly explored.

Chapter 4

Here, the readers get a vivid look into the world outside the wall of the house Bruno and his family lived in. Through the eyes of Gretel, Bruno’s sister, the reader is able to understand that the family lives next to a concentration camp. This scene changes both Bruno’s and the reader’s perspectives on the story.

Chapter 5

In this chapter, the reader is introduced to the bigger picture of what the story is about. Through the conversation that Bruno has with his parents, it is evident that the story is set during the time of war under Hitler’s rule. Bruno engages his father in an inquisitive conversation where most of Bruno’s questions are answered. The chapter ends with the phrase “Heil Hitler.”

Chapter 6

The chapter involves the introduction of Maria. Bruno and Maria are engaged in a deep conversation about Auschwitz. Maria thinks that Bruno’s father had justifiable reasons to relocate them to Auschwitz. Gretel enters the room with a loud slam on the door, frightening both Maria and Bruno thought the door slam was a gunshot.

Chapter 7

After several weeks in the new home, Bruno is bored. He decides to create a playing swing for himself. In this chapter, the reader is introduced to Kotler, a Lieutenant in the concentration camp. Kotler helps Bruno build the swing. Unfortunately, Bruno falls and hits his head on the ground while playing on the swing.

Chapter 8

The chapter explores the contrast between the past and the present. Bruno flashbacks their Christmas experience during the previous year. When he does so, Bruno feels even more frustrated with the current home. Here, the narrator takes us through Bruno’s attempt to write a letter to his grandmother, complaining about how the new home is boring.

Chapter 9

In an attempt to occupy his son with something to do, Bruno’s father seeks the services of Liszt, a tutor to teach both Bruno and Gretel. However, Liszt is not an ordinary tutor; he teaches Bruno aspects of war and radicalizes him against the Jewish people. Here, the author is trying to communicate the war between the Jewish and Germans during the Nazi wars.

Chapter 10

While running errands around the home compound, Bruno spots a boy on the other side of the homestead. Bruno approaches the boy and finds out they share some similarities, including the same birthday. It is through his interaction with the boy, Shmuel, that he finds out that they had relocated to Poland.

Chapter 11

Again this chapter involves a flashback with Bruno remembering the day before they relocated. It is in this chapter that the readers get to learn that Bruno’s father was a German commandant. He was a figure representing Hitler, the German dictator. Like Hitler, Bruno’s father was dictating what his family should and should not do at home.

Chapter 12

Through Bruno’s eyes, the reader is taken back to the fence where Bruno had met Shmuel. Here, Shmuel continues to shed more light on how their family found themselves there. He paints a picture of a family forced into the camp, even narrating how his mother was taken away.

Chapter 13

The chapter opens up with Bruno’s family, sharing dinner with Kotler and Pavel. While taking dinner, Bruno’s father engages in an adult conversation with both Pavel and Kotler. Kotler narrates his history, growing up as a child. From the conversation, it is evident that both Bruno’s father and Kotler shared a similar past.

Chapter 14

In this chapter, Bruno is seen with a black eye. Presumably, the black eye is a result of a fight with Shmuel, or he was bullied by the Nazi soldiers. However, the main highlight of the chapter is when Bruno is forced to lie to Gretel about his friend Shmuel. After accidentally talking about Shmuel, Bruno lies that he was an imaginary friend.

Chapter 15

Bruno’s secret friend Shmuel continues to remain a secret even in this chapter. Even when Shmuel is brought in for Bruno’s birthday, Bruno denies knowing him just to protect their friendship. However, he later apologizes to his friend for lying about knowing him and escorts him out of the party.

Chapter 16

Bruno’s grandmother dies, and they are forced to go back and bury her in Berlin. After they return, Bruno engages in a conversation with Gretel. Bruno wants to know their true identity, and Gretel tells him that they are non-Jews. The author uses this scene to portray a rift between the Jews and the Germans.

Chapter 17

In this chapter, the family is contemplating moving back to Berlin. While both Bruno’s mother and Gretel are so eager to go back to Berlin, the decision lies with their father, who dictates every decision the family makes. Here again, the author explores the masculine nature of society during the Nazi period.

Chapter 18

Bruno share the last moments with his friend Shmuel before Bruno’s family embarks on a journey to go back to Berlin. In an attempt to play on the last time before they leave for Berlin, Bruno dresses up in pajamas to look like his friend. The chapter also features the mysterious disappearance of Shmuel’s father.

Chapter 19

Bruno’s move to enter the other side of the camp is tragic. While on a mission to find Shmuel’s father, the two boys find themselves lost in the camp and surrounded by soldiers. They are taken and locked up by the soldiers in a dark room. The narrator does not tell what happens next; the reader is left to wonder if the two were killed.

Chapter 20

Bruno’s disappearance prompts a search by Bruno’s family. However, what they can only find is Bruno’s clothes, an indication that something terrible might have happened to Bruno. Although the reader has an idea that Bruno might have been killed by soldiers, sadly, the story ends with Bruno’s family, not knowing whether their son was alive or dead.


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The Relationship between FSMA and Food Defense

The Relationship between FSMA and Food Defense

FSMA is an act that was signed into law on 4 January 2011 by President Obama. It’s well designed to avoid contamination and provide prevention to foodborne sicknesses.  It is therefore vital to be aware and to practice proper food handling behaviors to avoid becoming sick from foods that are contaminated. Food safety by itself is the assurance that the food the consumer is taking is safe and not likely to affect or cause harm to the user. Food hygiene is generally compromised based on temperature, PH, or levels of humidity of the room they are kept in and they can as a result become harmful. The aim of this essay is to establish the relationship between FSMA and food defense and to discuss the control of intentional food contamination.

Refocusing FDA’s oversight responsibility in the regulation of food production. Edward et al (2016, P.11) explain that manufacturers were reaffirmed the major responsibility to produce foods that are safe and the agency was given the authority to recall, administration of detention, and suspension of registration.  A risk hazard analysis is a requirement by FSMA for all food processors unless exempted or otherwise.  A requirement to evaluate microbiological hazards analysis is exempted to low-acid canned food manufacturers whose retort processes have been approved. A preventive control program must be established by the firm I there is a foreseen or a known hazard likely to happen outside the control measures which can lead to illness or injury to either humans or animals.

The law further required a recommendation from the FDA to enhance protocols to safeguard proper control of the raw products as well as the increased supervision of imported foods. Edward et al (2016, P.15) further state that FDA has the right to do a recall tainted foods if a company cannot recall its own products. FDA is required to create strategies to curb the risks of intentional contamination and to establish safety standards for the product. According to FSMA the key responsibility for food safety rests on the manufacturers and the producers of the foods. FSMA requires the creation and enhancement of standards that are science-based for the production and harvesting of vegetables and fruits to be safe. That will put into consideration man-made risks for the safety of fresh produce.

Mitigation measures precisely focused on the facility and its dealings at each process to prevent liabilities must be identified and implemented. Willette (2019, P. 11) says that the establishment and implementation of monitoring procedures must be done with details of the frequency with which they are to be done. Guidance documents, resources, and tools have been developed by FDA to help with obedience to the AI rule.

Food defense regulations have helped reduce the risk of unsafe food through the use of food labels. Willette (2019, P. 8) alludes that these labels are principally on the front of the item, and must deliver the actual identity of the item and the actual contents of the product. Marketing and advertising items are permitted on the label too. This advocacy greatly influences how foods are labeled to fit the consumer’s needs.

Some of the major challenges in the implementation of FSMA include the following; Lack of an adequate HACCP plan. That plan isn’t adequate on its own with the new rules. It’s a challenge and especially for small enterprises. Inadequate training is another major challenge.  There is a need to have qualified personnel as a staff who have the required experience in the industry to strategize and actualize a program related to food safety. To get a solution to this, a consultant in food safety can assist in drafting a proper strategic plan and its implementation. Companies should further take their food safety officer for training through trainers certified by FDA.

In conclusion, the observance of control measures in the food chain is an important necessity having in mind that food defense risks can appear at any level of the series, and hence everyone involved has a responsibility to ensure food defense in compliance with the law and to avoid acts of terrorism in the food supply system. There has been an evolution of regulation of foods in the US and an increase in the amount of foods for consumption the people. The FSMA is a real illustration of how needs can be met by a change of laws.


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Crawford, W. M. (2019). The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA)’s role in the safety of functional foods and their ingredients. Nutraceutical and Functional Food Regulations in the United States and around the World, 61-74. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-816467-9.00005-8

Garver, K. (2016, July 25). Top 5 Challenges of FSMA Implementation (and How to Solve Them). Retrieved July 26, 2020, from

Steele, E. A., Breen, C., Campbell, E., & Martin, R. (2016). Food Regulations and Enforcement in the USA. Reference Module in Food Science. doi:10.1016/b978-0-08-100596-5.21031-7


The Significance of the Title Giovanni’s Room

The Significance of the Title Giovanni’s Room

James Baldwin’s Giovanni’s Room is one of the first novels to depict the concerns of same-sex desires. The story is about the experiences of David. He is an American who relocates to Paris in pursuit of self-discovery following a close-fatal accident. David meets an Italian man called Giovanni, in a bar, and is attracted to him. The novel is majorly centered on the months that David spends in Giovanni’s room, which is the outskirts of Paris. The room is described as disheveled and disorganized. This essay examines the significance of the title Giovanni’s room.

Giovanni’s room is a sanctuary. It is the one place where Giovanni and David feel the freedom to carry on with their desires concealed from the judgemental eyes of the word. The more David stays in that space. He starts to feel like he is in prison. Giovanni and David are in a romantic relationship. As the story continues, we realize that the room is like a prison cell for Giovanni in a way for an extended period. The place is significant because it holds great importance for the two main protagonists. Giovanni and David start to associate all kinds of ideas and emotions with the room, and the outcome is that it stops being just a literal room. Giovanni’s room is, therefore, elevated to a symbolic level. The room, thus, turns to be a metaphor for the dream David has concerning his life with Giovanni and, afterward, realizing the impossibility of the goal.


Although David is incapable of expressing his love with great words and emotions, he expresses his feelings through physical actions using the room. The title of the novel plays a critical role in the novel’s development and symbolism. The room can be viewed not only as an emblem of domesticity, but also a symbol of queerness. David portrays the room as a messy and dark place. It is littered with old newspapers, trash, empty bottles, and cardboard boxes. It is also a dark place. The darkness can be characterized by the actuality that Giovanni paints the room’s window panes using white paint.  The aim is to guarantee his privacy when he shares his bed with David and also as they get intimate.

At one point, David decides to assimilate himself within Giovanni’s room so that he can change it. He decided to approach the change as a subconscious effort to grasp some notch of queerness. The integration turns the room into a domestic space, whereby David undertakes the role of a ‘housewife’ because he willingly cleans and maintains the room:

I invented myself a kind of pleasure in playing the housewife after Giovanni had gone to work. I threw out paper, the bottles, the fantastic accumulation of trash; I examined the contents of the innumerable boxes and suitcases and disposed of them. But I am not a housewife–men can never be housewives. And the pleasure was never real or deep, though Giovanni smiled his humble, grateful smile and told me in as many ways as he could find how wonderful it was to have me there, how I stood, with my love and my ingenuity, between him and the dark. (88)

Although the room is small, dark and enclosed, it turns out to be a private space that allows David and Giovanni to live in a way that would be unattainable outside of the room’s restrictions. The room becomes a space of partnership and domesticity, where social rules of masculinity and gender are unwritten. There are no rules to regulate what two people of the same-sex can or can’t do. Space, as demonstrated in the passage above, also allows David to deviate from the expectations of manhood and masculinity shortly. Through the change of the room, David grows a sense of pleasure through the domestic roles that he started undertaking, although he denies this pleasure.

Even though the room becomes a functional space for the two men to express their love. The problem is, it also serves as a restriction for queerness. Therefore, David and Giovanni have can have a passionate relationship which is safe as long as it is contained within the dark and messy limits of the room. After a while, David feels smothered by the room’s queerness, whereas Giovanni intensely struggles to develop the room’s queerness past the restrictions of its walls. David accuses Giovanni of employing ‘love’ as a way of attracting him to partaking a feminine role:

What kind of life can we have in this room? This filthy little room. What kind of life can two men have together, anyway? All this love you talk about isn’t it just that you want to be made to feel strong? You want to go out and be the big laborer and bring home the money, and you want me to stay here and wash the dishes and cook the food and clean this miserable closet of a room and kiss you when you come in through that door and lie with you at night and be your little girl. That’s what you want. That’s what you mean, and that’s all you mean when you say you love me. (142)

David’s claims dearth a solid foundation because the reader realizes that Giovanni genuinely loves David. His love does not rely on embodying David as a ‘housewife.’ David took the role willingly. He does not take the part of a provider in Giovanni’s room. David abandons the place, forcing Giovanni to live alone. The space fills Giovanni with dread and fear because he hates being alone. Giovanni’s room becomes nothing but a dark, void, and a lonely space. A space where his queerness is ruined and set to exist in solitude and pain.


Work Cited

Baldwin, James. Giovanni’s Room. New York: Vintage Books, 2013. Print.


The Yellow Wallpaper

The Yellow Wallpaper

The Yellow Wallpaper is a story by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, which is about a wife who has an overprotective husband. Jane is always nervous because of the way her husband treats her; John locks her in a large, damp room with foul wallpaper covering it.  The yellow wallpaper is used as a paradox in the story to show how Jane is detaching from the world outside. John feels like he has the power to control Jane as he pleases. He believes that women should abide by their subordinate status that encourages men to manage and lead women. This essay analyses The Yellow Wallpaper using feminist criticism.

Feminist criticism of The Yellow Wallpaper

Traditionally, men have always had the most power than women in society. Women have been treated as citizens of the second class compared to their male counterparts. Culture has pitched into gender roles that condition women to play lesser roles in society. The Yellow Wallpaper depicts the struggle women go through Jane’s narration. Jane is locked away in a room because of the Victorian belief that women need “rest-cure,” which was prescribed the time of inactivity and was considered to cure nervous conditions and hysteria. Jane, the narrator, weeps as she is first put in isolation, and the reader can be able to visualize how horrible not being able to talk to anyone for long hours and share how you feel. It was devastating for Jane to have no real friends. She tells John that she wants to visit Henry and Julia; but John immediately disapproves, and Jane says, “But he said I wasn’t able to go, nor able to stand it after I got there; and I did not make out a very good case for myself, for I was crying before I had finished” (Gilman 651). The statement suggests that the women had no control over their lives; their husbands made decisions for them. Greg Johnson observes that John reveals a near-obsession with his wife and has a stifling influence that significantly affects her freedom (529).

The room that John places Jane does not please her. Jane first sees the wallpaper and is not impressed, she asks her husband if the wallpaper can be changed, but he declines with claims that with one change she would ask more remodelling in the room and a patient did not deserve such fancies. Jane says, “At first he meant to repaper the room, but afterwards he said that I was letting it get the better of me and that nothing was worse for a nervous patient than to give way to such fancies” (Gilman 649). As the narrative unfolds, Jane’s isolation influences her mental health. John deprives the only thing that she is passionate about, which is writing. John handles her like a child and does not trust her creativity. He calls her names such as ‘blessed little goose’ and ‘little girl.’ The names make the reader realize that John treats his wife like she is incapable of regulating her life, he tells her, “What is it, little girl? Don´t go walking about like that. You’ll get cold” (Gilman, 652). John even puts barred windows to Jane’s room that depicts that she has been returned to infancy by her husband; the voice of the woman is disregarded. Herndl says that The Yellow Wallpaper shows the sickness of the society and points out some sexual and social oppression that crippled the narrator (114).

Jane observes that her bedstead is nailed to the floor, she says, “John does not know how much I suffer” (Gilman 14). Johnson interprets it as a symbol “sexual crucifixion” (526). The statement regards Victorian sexuality. It was immobile, just like the bedstead, which cannot be moved. A Victorian wife was her husband’s property, and he would do to her anything that he wished. Johnson also adds that Victorian women were advised that marital relations are a duty for procreation, and it was no longer necessary after enough children had been born (532).

Jane’s mental health worsens during her isolation, and she starts thinking that she is in the wallpaper. At a certain point she starts noticing other women creeping from the window and asks herself if they emerged from the wallpaper as she had, She says, “I’ve got out, at last, said I, ‘in spite of you and Jane! And I’ve pulled off most of the paper, so you can’t put me back!”(Gilman 656). Jane addresses herself in the third person, and it indicates that her illness is worse than before.

Silvers notes that The Yellow wallpaper developed from a society that rejected individuals with behaviours that were different from the norms set. She adds that the story has glimpses of the practices that took place in the eighteenth-century, where the mentally ill individuals were viewed as barbarians who must be regulated even through inhumane ways (132). Silvers’s argument can be related to Jane’s situation. She was locked away because of her mental instability which does not work but leads to more madness. John disregards his wife’s opinions and is convinced that his strict governance will make his wife better through eating, but Jane is aware that it will need more than exercise and diet to help with her depression. John is a doctor, and he represents both medical and patriarchal attitude towards women and those emotionally sick.



Works Cited

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. The Yellow Wallpaper.

Herndl, Diane Price. Invalid Women: Figuring Feminine Illness in American Fiction and Culture, 1840-1940. Chapel Hill, The University of North Caroline Press, 1993.

Johnson, Greg. “Gilman’s Gothic Allegory: Rage and Redemption in ‘The Yellow Wallpaper.’” Studies in Short Fiction 26.4

Silvers, Anita. “Feminism and Disability.” The Blackwell Guide to Feminist Philosophy, edited by Linda Martin Alcoff and Eva Feder Kittay, Malden, Blackwell Publishing, 2007.