Kings Theory 1King’s Conceptual System TheoryOlajumoke OmiyaleAspen UniversityAuthor NoteN491 Concepts and Theories in NursingProfessor Denys Goozee MSN,RN,CRRNDecember 23, 2019 ! 2 King’s TheoryKings Theory of Conceptual System or Theory of Goal AttainmentIn the mid-1960s, Imogene King wrote of the need for focus, organization, and use of anursing knowledge base (King, 1968). She proposed that knowledge for nursing resulted fromthe systematic use and validation of knowledge about concepts relevant to nursing situations.The use of knowledge in critical thinking results in decisions that are implemented inprofessional nursing practice. “She developed a conceptual system which provides structure fororganizing multiple ideas into meaningful wholes” (Smith and Parker, 2015)The Three SystemsThe personal system that King speaks of refers to the individual. The concepts within thepersonal system and fundamental in understanding human beings are perception, self, bodyimage, growth and development, time, and space (King, 1981). King (1981) viewed perceptionas the most important variable because perception influences behavior.King summarized the connections among the concepts in the following statement: “Anindividual’s perceptions of self, of body image, of time and space influence the way he or sheresponds to persons, objects, and events in his or her life. As individuals grow and developthrough the life span, experiencesInterpersonal systems involve individuals interacting with one another.King refers to two individuals interacting as dyads, three individuals as triads, and four or moreindividuals as small or large groups (King, 1981). The concepts associated with interpersonalsystems are interaction, transaction, communication, role and stress. The interactions and! 3 King’s Theorytransactions that occur between the nurse and the client, or the dyad, represent an example of aninterpersonal system.Communication between the nurse and the client can be classified as verbal or nonverbal.Verbal exchanges include both spoken and written communication, while nonverbalcommunication includes such things as appearance, distance, facial expressions, posture andtouch.The third and final interacting system in King’s model is the social system.Social systems are groups of people within a community or society that share common goals,interests, and values. Social systems provide a framework for social interaction and relationships,and establish rules of behavior and courses of action (King, 1971). Examples of social systemsinclude the family, the school, and the church. It is within these organizations that individual’sbeliefs, attitudes, values and customs are formed. The concepts that King identified as relating tosocial systems are organization, authority, power, status, and decision-making.The relationships between these three systems led to King’s Theory of Goal Attainment.The conceptual framework of the interpersonal system had the greatest influence on thedevelopment of this theory. King (1981) stated, “Although personal systems and social systemsinfluence quality of care, the major elements in a theory of goal attainment are discovered in theinterpersonal systems in which two people, who are usually strangers, come together in a healthcare setting for the purpose of one of them requiring care and the other providing the care (RoyalNurse Organization, 2001)! 4 King’s TheoryHow the systems Affect Goal AttainmentThe model has three interacting systems: personal, interpersonal, and social. Each ofthese systems has its own set of concepts. The concepts for the personal system are perception,self, growth and development, body image, space, and time. The concepts for the interpersonalsystem ( nursing Theory, n.d) are interaction, communication, transaction, role, and stress. Theconcepts for the social system are organization, authority, power, status, and decision-making.The conceptual frame work have given rise to the development of prepositions that can guidegoal attainment. For example, in an obstetric unit;If perceptual interaction accuracy is present in nurse-patient interactions, transaction will occur.Most patients in labor are anxious and are facing a huge knowledge deficit regarding theircondition and environment, a nurse who is mindful of how she presents and interact with thepatient, communicate her special knowledge and is able to assure the patient the the patient andher unborn baby are the priority if the nurse and the entire unit, this nurse is able to strike atransaction with this patient because, the patient can be seen to visibly relax and allow the nurseto care for her.If the nurse and patient make transaction, the goal or goals will be achieved. The nurse togetherwith the patient will discuss the patient’s birth plan. The Nurse is aware not to push anyprocedures on the patient but duly clarifies and explains. The duty of the nurse is to supportpatient’s plans. Many times, a woman in labour will want to go as far into labor as she canwithout any medications, she will however make a plan with the nurse to be ready to medicateher when ever she rates her pain at at least 8 out of 10 labor pain.! 5 King’s TheoryIf the goal or goals are achieved, satisfaction will occur.Whether the patient delivers with anypain medication or she gets a dose of fentanyl at the beginning of second stage of labor, once theoutcome desired is achieved, which is a delivery of a viable newborn, satisfaction of the newmom is attained.If transactions are made in nurse-patient interactions, growth and development will be enhanced-It is easier and recommended for practice form a medical and legal point of view that the nursemakes -nurse-patient transaction versus any other interactions with anyone else for the sake ofthe patient. If role expectations and role performance as perceived by the nurse and patient arecongruent, transaction will occur. The views of the nurse and patient have to be in harmony forgoals attainment. If role conflict is experienced by either the nurse or the patient (or both), stressin the nurse-patient interaction will occur and there my be no transaction. If a nurse with specialknowledge communicates appropriate information to the patient, mutual goal-setting and goalachievement will occur.How King’s Theory Can Help Define a Clinical Quality ProblemWhen a clinical quality question arises, the nurse is better guided to define the problem using theKing theory. First, the use of King’s theory will help guide the literature search to include studiesthat address interventions or processes that lead to favorable patient outcomes or goals amongpatients similar to the population on the unit.(Smith and Parker, 2015)Knowing that the quality Improvement committee is a type of interpersonal system that iscomprised of individuals interacting to achieve common goals, the nurse should take the! 6 King’s Theoryunclear clinical situations to the QI committee. Together the QI and the primary nurse willembark on a goal attainment of defining the clinical problem for the benefit of patients.Applying King’s Theory To a Potential Clinical Practice Quality InitiativeEvery unit has a group of individuals with specialized knowledge, they work together to achievea common goal. This committee uses King’s conceptual system for quality improvement whenthe opportunity presents itself. For example when a nurse is facing a scenario where what istaught is not what is being practiced as in the case of a nurse graduate who witnessed the use ofsaline in breaking up secretions in patient with endotracheal intubations. The nurse graduatebrought her clinical question to the QI committee, a type of interpersonal system. Aninterpersonal system encompasses individuals in groups interacting to achieve goals. The QIcommittee is engaged in the committee’s goal attainment for the benefit of patients. “Roleexpectations and role performance of nurses and clients influence transactions” (King, 1981, p.147). When used in interdisciplinary teams, the transaction process in King’s theory facilitatesmutual goal setting with nurses, and ultimately patients, based on each member of the team’sspecific knowledge and functions. Multidisciplinary care conferences, an example of a situationwhere goal-setting among professionals occurs, is a label for an indirect nursing interventionwithin the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC; Bulechek, Butcher, & Dochterman, 2008).Some of the activities listed under this NIC reflect King’s (1981) concepts: “establish mutuallyagreeable goals; solicit input for patient care planning; revise patient care plan, as necessary;! 7 King’s Theorydiscuss progress toward goals; and provide data to facilitate evaluation of patient care plan” (Sithand Parker, 2015)How a Quality Committee Can Align Outcomes with Kings Conceptual System TheoryAs illustrated in the obstetric situation, the goals of the patient became the goals of the nurse. Thegoals were mutually greed upon. According to King, for goals attainment, the QI committee haveto mutually agree because goals are similar to outcomes and goals lead to outcomes.Effectiveness of care will be measured by whether the patient goals (i.e., outcomes) have beenattained. The QI Committee engages in goal attainment through communication by setting goals,finding means, and agreeing on means to achieve goals. In a QI scenario , members will gatherinformation, examine data and evidence, interpret the information, and participate in developinga protocol for patients to achieve quality patient outcomes, that is, goals.Additional Nursing Theory from That Align With an Improved Quality of PracticeInitiativeThe most closely associated theory in quality improvement initiative is the Orlando Nursingtheory, Henderson theory and Johnson theory because they all are incorporated with the conceptof goal setting wit the patient and attainment of that goal.! 8 King’s TheoryConclusionIn conclusion, an essential component in the analysis of conceptual frameworks and theories isthe consideration of their adequacy (Ellis, 1968). Adequacy depends on the three interrelatedcharacteristics of scope, usefulness, and complexity. Conceptual frameworks are broad in scopeand are sufficiently complex to be useful for many situations, which makes them more versatilethan theories. Theories on the other hand, are narrower in scope, usually addressing less abstractconcepts, and are more specific in terms of the nature and direction of relationship and focus(Smith and Parker, 2015)! 9 King’s TheoryReferencesWilliams, L.A. (2001). Imogene King’s Interacting Systems Theory: Application in Emergencyand Rural Nursing.Retrieved fromNursing Theory. (n.d). Kings Theory of Goals Attainment. Retrieved from https://nursing-theory.org/theories-and-models/king-theory-of-goal-attainment.phpSmith, M. C., & Parker, M. E. (2015). Nursing Theories and Nursing Practice (4th ed.).Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.https://nursing-theory.org/theories-and-models/king-theory-of-goal-attainment.phphttps://nursing-theory.org/theories-and-models/king-theory-of-goal-attainment.phphttps://aspenuniversity-store.vitalsource.com/products/nursing-theories-and-nursing-practice-marlaine-c-smith-v9780803674844 Do you need a similar assignment done for you from scratch? 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