CONTINUE OF ANALYTICAL REPORT

continue of analytical report

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1. For your title page, follow the format of the sample title page on page 4 of this handout. Make sure your title page is complete and precise: it should tell readers what they can expect to find in the report and rule out what they can expect not to find.
2. For your table of contents, follow the format of the sample table of contents on page 5 of this handout.
3. Your abstract (a summary of your report) should not exceed two pages. The word “ABSTRACT” should appear as a centerhead at the top of the page on which the abstract begins. The abstract must include the following:
(a) A paragraph presenting your statement of purpose; a condensed version of the “problem” subsection that appears in the introductory section of your report; a sentence listing your alternative solutions; and a sentence listing your criteria. (You can assemble this paragraph by cutting and pasting appropriate information from the “Introduction” section of your report.)
(b) A series of paragraphs, each of which condenses one of the Roman-numeralled sections in the body of your report. (You will have as many paragraphs as you have criteria; each paragraph will concentrate on one criterion. If one of your criteria is cost, you will include a paragraph summarizing the cost figures for all of the alternative solutions; if another of your criteria is anticipated effectiveness, you will include a paragraph summarizing the information about the anticipated effectiveness of your alternative solutions; etc.)
(c) A short paragraph summarizing the “Conclusions” section of your report. (It will be sufficient if, in this paragraph, you merely state which alternative solution emerged as the best in terms of each criterion; that is, which alternative was best in terms of criterion A, which was best in terms of criterion B, etc.)
(d) A very short paragraph stating the recommendation presented in the “Recommendations” section of your report. (You can assemble this paragraph by merely cutting and pasting the first sentence or two of your “Recommendations” section.)
4. For your introductory section, follow the format of the sample analytical report included on pages 5-7 of this handout. Use centerheads and sideheads properly and consistently. Centerheads and sideheads will always be formatted in full caps. Always double-space after centerheads and sideheads.
Your introduction must include the following:
(a) A clear and concise purpose subsection, consisting of a sentence that begins with the phrasing “The purpose of this report is to . . . ,” followed by a sentence listing your alternative solutions.
(b) A clear, concise, detailed, and thorough problem subsection explaining the nature of the problem, its scope, its seriousness, etc. The problem statement can be identical to the background statement included in the topic proposal you wrote earlier in the semester.
(c) A clear, concise, and thorough scope subsection, in which you introduce the criteria by which you will evaluate the alternatives and introduce the organizational pattern of the report by previewing the sections that will follow in the body of the report. (This third part of the scope statement is similar to the thesis statement of an academic essay because it introduces the major subdivisions of the report.) Make sure to end the final part of the scope statement with the sentence “Conclusions and a recommendation follow.”
(d) A clear, concise, and thorough background subsection (only if relevant to your topic), in which you provide your readers (intelligent nonspecialists) with any definitions of technical terms or any background information essential to your readers understanding of the report and any clarifictions of what your alternative solutions will entail.
5.The body of your report will resemble that of the sample report included in this handout. Each Roman-numeralled section will concern itself with one of your criteria. Begin each section with an introductory paragraph in which you explain exactly what your criterion means, and then, in the subsections that follow, discuss each of your alternatives in terms of that criterion. That is, if one of your criteria is cost, you will provide the cost figures for each of the alternative solutions. Each Roman-numeralled section must begin on a fresh page. Use a centerhead to introduce each section; use sideheads to introduce the subsections discussing the alternative solutions. Double-space after each centerhead and sidehead. Each section must conclude with a summary no longer than one paragraph. Introduce the summary with the word “SUMMARY” positioned as a sidehead. Each summary subsection must state which alternative solution has emerged as the best on the basis of the criterion applied in the section, and the summary must also rank the remaining alternative solutions from second-best on downward.
6. Introduce the conclusions section (which will begin on a fresh page) with a centerhead. (As usual, double-space after the centerheads; see the format of the “conclusions” section in the sample report.) Your “Conclusions” section will summarize the main points about each of the alternative solutions and draw out the logical implications of the data. Present the conclusions as a series of numbered paragraphs, one for each alternative solution. Structure each paragraph in the following manner: if your criteria are cost, ease of implementation, opinions of managers, and opinions of co-workers, include at least one sentence for each criterion. Each sentence will summarize the most important information about the alternative solution in terms of that criterion. You will thus have at least one sentence about the cost, at least one sentence about the ease of implementation, etc. End each paragraph by explaining why the alternative solution is a good, fair, or poor solution. If your criteria are cost, time required to implement solution, opinions of managers, and anticipated effectiveness, a “Conclusions” paragraph would look like this:
1. Purchasing and installing two security cameras and monitors has the second-lowest cost of the four alternatives, at $1,500. Installation would require no more than half a day, making it the least time-consumptive alternative. Only one of the four managers thought that the use of security cameras was the best solution to the problem. The use of security cameras has been found to be only moderately effective. Therefore, this alternative is, overall, only a fair solution.
7. Introduce the recommendation section, which will appear on a fresh page, with a centerhead. (Again, double-space after the centerhead.) Your “Recommendation” section will advocate that the reader take a particular course of action—namely, adopting the alternative solution that, on the basis of your analysis of the data in the body of your report, has emerged as the most promising and effective of the alternative solutions. Use phrasing such as “It is recommended that . . .” or “I recommend that . . . .” Follow the statement of recommendation with one or more sentences summarizing why the recommended solution is superior to the other alternative solutions that have been discussed in the report.
If, in addition to declaring your recommendation, you also want to recommend how the recommendation should be implemented, include this information in a statement beginning with the phrasing “It is also recommended that . . .” or “I also recommend that . . . .” This will be considered a secondary recommendation. The secondary recommendation is not the second-best alternative solution.
The solution you are recommending must be one—and only one—of the solutions listed in the introductory section and discussed throughout the report. You cannot recommend a combination of any of the alternative solutions under consideration in the report.
If you are presenting both a primary and a secondary recommendation, present them within a pair of numbered paragraphs.
8. For your works-cited page, follow the standard MLA format you used in the annotated bibliography in your progress report. The works-cited page will not be annotated. You must include at least seven credible, authoritative, reliable sources—and all seven sources must be cited in the body of the report. Double-space within and between bibliographical entries.
9. An appendix is optional. If your research sources include a questionnaire you designed or a survey you conducted, the appendix must include a copy of the questionnaire or the list of the questions you asked when you conducted your survey. The appendix can also include any supplementary information that will enrich your readers understanding of the body of your report. The pages in the appendix, however, do not count toward the nine-page minimum length required for the analytical report.

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FOLLOW THE FORMAT BELOW FOR EACH OF YOUR TWO SAMPLE ANALYTICAL-REPORT SECTIONS
SECTION I: INSERT NAME OF FIRST CRITERION HERE, IN FULL CAPS
A brief, double-spaced introductory paragraph will appear here beneath the centerhead
that functions as the title of the section. A Roman numeral follows the word “SECTION” in the title.
INSERT NAME OF FIRST ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION HERE*
The full-capped sidehead will be followed by one or more double-spaced paragraphs (each
beginning with an explicit topic sentence) in which you provide relevant information from
sources about the alternative solution in terms of the criterion being applied in this section.
For the publish, end each sentence that will later require documentation with the parenthesized
abbreviation TK, as in thissentence (TK). The sentence-ending period follows the parentheses.
INSERT NAME OF SECOND ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION HERE*
Develop and document this subsection the same way you did in the subsection for the
first alternative solution.
INSERT NAME OF THIRD ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION HERE*
Develop and document this subsection the same way you did in the subsection for the
first alternative solution.
INSERT NAME OF FOURTH ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION HERE*
Develop and document this subsection the same way you did in the subsection for the
first alternative solution.
INSERT NAME OF FIFTH ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION HERE*
Develop and document this subsection the same way you did in the subsection for the
first alternative solution.
SUMMARY
Write a brief, double-spaced paragraph beginning with a sentence in which you state which
alternative solution hasemerged as the best on the basis of the criterion under consideration in
this section. Then write asentence in which you list the second-best, third-best, fourth-best,
etc., solutions. (This subsection must begin with the full-capped word “SUMMARY” as a sidehead.)
Follow the same format for SECTION II. Begin SECTION II on a fresh page.___________
*in condensed verb-phrase form, consuming no more than one line of text.
FURTHER GUIDELINES

Every sentence that includes paraphrased material and/or a direct quotation from a research source must be documented with a parenthetical citation—with the exception of the special cases noted earlier with an asterisk. An undocumented sentence is a plagiarized sentence.

For any information derived not from any research source but instead from your own experiences, observations, and knowledge, make sure that the phrasing makes it clear that you are the source of the information; the phrasing needs to include a first-person pronoun (I, me, or my). Otherwise, the reader will conclude that you neglected to attribute the information to a research source. Use phrasing such as “My experience as a sales associate has taught me . . .” or “During my internship, I learned . . . .” Keep such sentences to an absolute minimum: remember that the analytical-report assignment is a research project.
________________________________________________________________
If several consecutive sentences in a single paragraph present information from the same published or online source, you have three alternatives:
(1) Include the authors last name (or, if the name has not been provided, a correctly punctuated abbreviated version of the title of the source) in the first parenthetical citation, but in all subsequent parenthetical citations in the same paragraph (until information from a different source has been introduced), include only page numbers (or paragraph numbers, for online sources) in the parenthetical citations. The outline of such a paragraph would look like this: Topic Sentence. Sentence 1 (Wilson 94). Sentence 2 (95). Sentence 3 (96-97). Sentence 4 (98). Sentence 5 (99-101). Sentence 6 (Jones 119). Sentence 7 (Wilson 99).
(2) Insert an asterisk at the end of the first sentence that presents information from the source. The asterisk will direct the readers attention to a special note, called an umbrella note, that will be positioned at the bottom of the page. The umbrella note covers the sequence of consecutive sentences that present paraphrased information and direct quotations from the source. An umbrella note looks like this:
*All information in this paragraph, except where noted otherwise, has been derived from Brown 94-98.
Use two consecutive asterisks (**) for a second umbrella note on a single page and three asterisks (***) for a third note.
(3) If several consecutive sentences in a single paragraph present paraphrased information from the same published or online source, follow these guidelines:
Somewhere in the first of the several consecutive sentences, include the name (either the full name or the last name) of the author of the source, or, if the authors name is not known, include the full title of the source. (Italicize the titles of books and Web sites; use quotation marks to enclose the titles of newspaper and magazine articles [in print form and online] and essays.) Then, at the end of the final sentence in the sequence, include a parenthetical citation specifying the page(s) or paragraph(s) on which the information in the consecutive sentences was found.
EXAMPLE:
Sentence 1: Stevenson claims that . . .
Sentence 2: Sentence presents material from the Stevenson source but is not documented.
Sentence 3: Final sentence presenting information from the Stevenson source is followed by a parenthetical citation that includes the page number(s) of the information presented in the three-sentence sequence (341-342).
This way the reader will know that the information in all three consecutive sentences has been derived from the same source. The inclusion of the authors name in the first sentence and the parenthetical citation at the end of the final sentence in effect frames or bookends the material drawn from a single source. This is the strategy preferred in academic writing.
If several consecutive sentences in a single paragraph present information from the same interview source, you have three alternatives:
(1) Include the interviewees last name in a parenthetical citation at the end of each sentence. The outline of such a paragraph would look like this: Topic Sentence. Sentence 1 (Davis). Sentence 2 (Davis). Sentence 3 (Davis). Sentence 4 (Davis). Sentence 5 (Davis).
(2) Use an umbrella note (see previous page).
(3) Include the interviewees last name in the first sentence presenting information from the interview, and then, in the text of the subsequent sentences, either repeat the interviewees last name or use a pronoun referring unmistakably to him or her. (None of the sentences would then require parenthetical citations.) The outline of such a paragraph would look like this: Topic Sentence. Davis notes that . . . . She also points out that . . . . In addition, she has observed that . . . . Furthermore, her experiences demonstrate that . . . .
_______________________________________________________________________
SPECIAL CASES
1. If your “Works Cited” page includes more than one source by a particular author, each parenthetical citation must include not only the authors name and page number(s) but also an appropriately punctuated abbreviated version of the title of the source. Suppose, for example, that your “Works Cited” page includes two books by Derek Jones. If one of them is entitled Communication in the Workplace, a parenthetical citation for a sentence not already including the authors name will be (Jones, Communication 23).
2. If a source has more than one author, use the following formats:
two authors: (Harbeck and Jones 31).
three authors: (Harbeck, Jones, and Morrissey 53).
more than three authors: (Harbeck et al. 42).
3. If a piece of information included in one of your sentences can be found in more than one of the sources listed on your “Works Cited” page, use this format: (Jones 84; Smith 162).
4. When you are condensing into a single sentence information derived from a number of different pages in a source, use this format: (Stevenson 62-65, 67, 69-73).
5. If you write a sentence in which one segment provides information from one source and another segment provides information from a different source, use this format: Segment 1 (Smith 18), and segment 2 (Jones 194).

A REMINDER: Use italics when you are including in a parenthetical citation an abbreviated version of the title of a book, a pamphlet, or a self-contained online source. Put quotation marks around an abbreviated version of the title of an article in a newspaper or a magazine.
In general, when full titles are presented, italics are used for the names of books, newspapers, magazines, pamphlets, and Web sites; quotation marks are used for the titles of articles.

INTEGRATING DIRECT QUOTATIONS INTO YOUR ANALYTICAL REPORT
The only justification for including a direct quotation in your analytical report is that the phrasing of the source is so brilliant, vivid, and memorable that a paraphrase would not do justice to the force of the writers expression. Such phrasing rarely appears in the sources consulted for analytical reports. Therefore, you will want to keep direct quotations to an absolute minimum: more than five or six direct quotations in a nine-page report will be excessive. Paraphrase your sources.
Patterns for integrating a direct quotation into a sentence
Single-sentence quotation
E. M. Cioran wrote,“I dream of a world in which one might die for a comma” (2).
E. M. Cioran wrote that “the history of ideas is the history of the spite of certain solitaries” (3).
“The history of ideas,” wrote E. M. Cioran,“is the history of the spite of certain solitaries” (3).
Single-sentence quotation preceded by an independent clause “setting up” or introducing the quotation:
E. M. Cioran has an unusual perspective on the process of artistic creation:“Almost all works are made with flashes of imitation, with studied shudders and stolen ecstasies” (17).
Two-sentence quotation
E. M. Cioran wrote:“Anxiety was already a common product of the caveman. Imagine our Neanderthals smile had he discovered that philosophers would one day claim to have invented it” (27).
“Anxiety was already a common product of the caveman,” E. M. Cioran wrote.“Imagine our Neanderthals smile had he discovered that philosophers would one day claim to have invented it” (27).
Phrasal and single-word quotations
E. M. Cioran defines melancholy as “an appetite no misery satisfies” (51).
E. M. Cioran claims that in order to secure the privacy we require, we must make ourselves “odious” to others (69).
SOURCE: Cioran, E. M. All Gall Is Divided. Trans. Richard Howard. New York: Arcade, 1999. Print.

USING ELLIPSES AND BRACKETS WITHIN QUOTATIONS
Use ellipses (. . .) to signal the intentional and justifiable omission of one or more words from a direct quotation.
1. sentence from source: “Errors, however, are unintentional and unprofitable intrusions upon the consciousness of the reader.”
quotation integrated into research-paper sentence: Shaughnessy argues that “errors . . . are unintentional and unprofitable intrusions upon the consciousness of the reader” (45).
2. sentence from source: “Attempts to define the sentence, from the school formula complete thought expressed in words to the intricate elaborations of the semanticist, boil down to the assertion that a sentence has to be about something.”
quotation integrated into research-paper sentence: Wilson Follett writes that “attempts to define the sentence . . . boil down to the assertion that a sentence has to be about something” (291).
3. sentence from source: “Almost all works are made with flashes of imitation, with studied shudders and stolen ecstasies.”
quotation integrated into research-paper sentence: In describing the process of artistic creation, Cioran declares that “almost all works are made with flashes of imitation . . .” (17).
Use brackets—[ ]—to insert a clarifying or explanatory word or phrase within a direct quotation.
1. Cline argues that “in a psychological sense, he [a judge] is probably less suited than a jury to make . . . a judgment [about whether a work is pornographic], which involves the values and consent of the governed as much as any clear, legally defined concept of what is obscene or not” (41).
2. After posing the question of who should determine whether a film, painting, sculpture, or book is potentially deleterious, Cline states, “The answer is simple: If a law has been breeched [sic]—a jury” (38).
Use brackets to alert the reader to any changes in the form of words that become necessary when you are integrating a direct quotation into a sentence of your own.
sentence from source: “Let me propose a more subtle alternative interpretation of the ending of the film.”
quotation integrated into research-paper sentence: Morton “propose[s] a[n] . . . alternative interpretation . . .” (84).

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