Describe and identify the purpose of hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies.

Describe the difference between adaptive and innate immunity.
List and describe the 5 attributes of adaptive immunity.
Elements of Adaptive Immunity

Describe antigens and describe the characteristics of effective antigens. Identify, compare and contrast the three types of antigens.
How many kinds of MHCs are there? Where are they found? What is their function in the immune system?
Which cells are classified as APCs? What is an APC? What is its function in the immune system?
Explain how host cells know the difference between “self” and “non-self” cells when fighting infection.
Explain T cell clonal deletion and how it functions in autoimmune diseases. Describe clonal deletion of B cells and its purpose.
Describe what happens when a B cell is stimulated by the “right” antigen. Also, explain what a plasma cell is.
Describe what an antibody is, the general shape of an antibody, and identify where antigens bind to on an antibody.
Describe the five possible functions of antibodies.
Cell-Mediated Immune Responses

Describe the process of cytotoxic T cell activation during an immune response.
Antibody Immune Responses

Describe how memory B cells form and their role in immune defense.
Describe the difference of primary vs secondary immune response.
Chapter 23: Microbial Diseases of the Digestive System

For each of the diseases identified in this chapter:

identify the scientific name of the causative pathogenic organism
identify the type of organism (bacterium, fungus, virus, protozoan, helminth, prion, etc.)
identify the key signs & symptoms of the disease (especially those that differentiate it from other similar diseases)
describe differentiating features of the disease: pathogenesis of the disease including any common vectors, any common means of contraction, any individuals that are more likely to contract the disease, etc.
Bacterial Diseases of the Digestive System

peptic ulcer disease
bacterial gastroenteritis
Viral Diseases of the Digestive System

mumps
viral hepatitis
Protozoan Diseases of the Intestinal Tract

cryptosporidiosis
Helminthic Infestations of the Intestinal Tract

anisakiasis
Chapter 17: Immunization and Immune Testing

Immunization

Describe the difference between active vs passive immunity. Describe the difference between acquired and natural immunity. Be able to combine these four concepts correctly and provide examples of each.
Describe Edward Jenner’s 1796 experiment and its key finding. Also, describe where scientists got the term vaccination. Lastly, define vaccination, variolation, vaccine and immunization.
Identify the pros and cons and the difference between the following types of vaccines: attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, toxoid vaccines, combination vaccines, and vaccines using recombinant gene technology.
Describe herd immunity and its purpose. Explain what is used in the U.S. to enable herd immunity.
Describe the three major safety concerns or problems with vaccines. Also, explain whether current research supports the claims that vaccines can trigger autism, diabetes and/or asthma.
Describe passive immunotherapy. Describe how antibodies are acquired for passive immunotherapy. Describe the three major limitations of passive immunotherapy.
Describe and identify the purpose of hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies.
Serological Tests That Use Antigens and Corresponding Antibodies

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