discuss sexuality and how it is portrayed in the Painted Babies documentary.

How is sexuality portrayed/ constructed in ‘Painted Babies’?
Introduction
Innocence is part of children’s culture and adults have taken advantage of this as revealed in Painted Babies documentary. This is where we see the construction of sexuality and girls are the most affected. Feminism is being spread through the activities, which adults engage in. We see small girls being exposed to the beauty and they are shown how they are supposed to behave during the occasion. The truth is that children possess their own culture, but adults have taken the advantage of innocence and they have exposed children to things, which consume their innocence. The research on the nature and behavior of children has concluded that just like adults, children have their own culture. This is like their own world in where their behaviors and thoughts are based. In my research on this study, I have found many articles that discuss the culture of children in-depth. The issue of sexuality is very much evident in the documentary especially where the girl dresses up for the purpose of pleasing people. The paper will discuss sexuality and how it is portrayed in the Painted Babies documentary.
Background
The idea of beauty is brought in by adults who try to spoil young female children through introducing them to the world of beauty. It is clear that adults do not understand that children have their own culture, which needs not to be corrupted. According to, painted Babies documentary, adults ignore the power and innocence of children by introducing them to activities that take out their innocence. The issue of feminism is seen through the incident where girls are subjected to beautify and their roles are defined through those things, which they are exposed to. Research has indicated that many children at their little age show this characteristic where they use this art while playing and during interactions. It is important to note that the topic is not that common considering that it demands people with great understanding on the behavior and growth of children and all is based on their culture. As discussed before, children have their own culture, which is different from that of adults. Their way of interacting is different and the same applies to even their way of thinking. This is why they are provided with materials, which develop their creativity and other abilities (Connolly, 2011).

As part of this research, it is important to focus on the importance of this topic to the audience and researchers. The research on children culture increases the understanding on the bases of children behaviors. It helps all parties, which take part in children’s development to understand the right environment in which children should be exposed to for proper development. This is evident through the recommendations, which have been made by researchers concerning the need to understand the interests of children and their needs. This ensures that children are not exposed to harmful materials that can affect their development. The research on painted babies in children culture bares great importance to all people and most probably parents who are concerned with the wellbeing of their children. The world is improving and there is no way that parents can prevent their children from learning. It is part of their culture as described in the topic on children culture. They learn from art that is present in their environment and the media also plays a part. . It is therefore important to understand the behavior of children since it ensures that the responsible people are careful and they are able to understand that every moment of a child is based on learning. The best time to educate them is when they are still young and when they are having the first exposure to new things. This is the time when parents can rectify any unnecessary behavior of reactions, which come from influence from media. It becomes a great challenge when parents realize that there is a problem with their behaviors. At this stage of childhood, parents have greater control on their parents, which makes the process of educating them to be simple. This shows the great importance of the topic since it enlightens the caretakers of children on their nature that includes their understanding and precautions that should be ensured. The topic also helps the public to understand the importance of controlling content that can be harmful to them.
Methods
Feminism is well expressed through the incident where the girl in Painted Babies is showed how to dress and to look nice in order to impress people. The issue of sexuality In order to get this information, I have reviewed several articles which have discussed the topic in details. This is through conducting researches on the topic and identifying what other authors have researched. In the process of finding information, there is much that I have learnt about the culture of children, their behavior and how they understand the topic on painted babies. There are several authors who have researched the topic and they have identified several concepts that I have picked from their works. In my research, I have combined these concepts thus creating great understanding on the topic and educating the audience on the nature of children. The use of painted babies in children culture has been discussed in details and through reviewing these materials, I have engaged into a process of educating people on the culture children into a greater extent. There is however things which have discovered in my research concerning the culture of children.
Children have their own culture but adults do not know this and thus the reason why they expose them to materials, which are not healthy for them. The girl child is the one who suffers according to the research. Research shows that children’s interests have shifted and this is evident through the activities, which they engage into. The media is the source of these changes since it has introduced new forms of children cultures a good example being games and languages. The use of songs is another thing, which has changed the media being the great source. Sometimes children are separated from things, which build them and improve their lives as they grow. Let us take a good example which in this case if play. Research indicates that when children play, they understand their abilities and talents. This can be the power to know things or special abilities that they posses. This shows that there is great need for making sure that children are exposed to materials that are healthy for their development. With this knowledge, parents are supposed to expose their children to situations that enable them to grow through identifying areas in which they feature when they grow up. We can say that it is through this method that children come to select their areas of specialization part of their careers. There is therefore great need of being focused on this topic of culture of children since it has greater advantages on the nature of children (Goldfaden, 2007).
Findings
Sexuality is portrayed in painted babies through the incident where girls are exposed to materials that take out their innocence. They are exposed to roles, which includes being presentable in order to please men. This is clear evidence, which shows that the issue of sexuality is evident in the case. In my research on painted babies under children culture, there are certain findings that I have become familiar with, as I will be discussed. There are important things that I have discovered and I am convinced that they will contribute in creating understanding on the culture of children. It is an interest, which has grown as the technology progresses. As discussed before, children culture is both traditional and modern. There are those behaviors and practices, which have immersed as a result of influence by technology. There are those traditional practices, which have been forgotten since they have been overtaken, by what has been promoted by technology. The play is essential for every child considering that it improves the cognitive ability of every child thus helping them to cope with many things in life. It is through games and other forms of play that children come to know the risks that are found in every activity and the importance of these games. This is the reason why new types of children entertainment and engagements are being introduced.
Another thing that I found in my research is on how children are used by adults to promote feminism. This is evident through the case where a girl is made to look pretty for the purpose of pleasing the audience. At such a little age, girls are supposed to be set free in order to discuss their world. There is, therefore, need for further research concerning the culture since there are parts, which not yet researched. Children are beings who create their own world based on what they observe from their superiors. It is not a wonder to see a boy taking the position of a father in a play and a girl taking a position of a mother. This comes from what they see and they represent what is happening in their society (Cartwright, 2012).
Discussion of the Findings
In this discussion, I will focus on the concepts, which are expressed in the documentary of the Painted Babies. The most important thing in the documentary is the fact that girls are presented as objects which live under the influence of the things around them. Sexuality is a problem, which has affected the world where women are presented as inferior to men. The problem is that women are the ones who teach girls on their positions and how they are supposed to behave. This has contributed to the behaviors, which are now evident and the fight against feminism has become difficult considering that women have taken part in making the efforts hard. Children are now challenging adults over the things that they are doing. Before, parents were criticizing the games, which children played and other activities they used to involve in. This is because they did not contain any meaning and they were based on wrong things or activities which had bad consequences. Today that is not the case since there are changes, which have occurred where children are now making fun of things which are found in our society. A good example is the use of guns, which have increased in the society. Children are using these occurrences where they are relating plays and games on them. It is part of children’s culture to observe and relate these occurrences and behaviors of their parents. This is where the culture of painting babies has merged since it relates to what that is happening in the society (Robinson,&Davies, 2008).
The issue of sexuality had affected the world considering that feminism is still affecting women. Women have contributed in this problem since they are the ones who show young girls the things that they are supposed to do. The Panted Babies documentary shows how girls are dressed and prepared all for the purpose of fitting in the group. The research had some limitations especially in the process of gathering information about the topic. Some articles were not available and they required proper searching this consuming time. Other could not be accessed easily and this formed part of limitations, which were observed in the process. Another thing is a lack of enough sources other than books. The research could be more successful if the practical information was involved in the research, but this could not be done due to lacks resources. Concerning the culture of children, my research has concluded that media has acted as source of information to children and one of that topics which they have learned is that of sexuality though this is the case, there is a need for putting measures in order to ensure that children are safe from bad information which can ruin them.
The media has created a channel in which children are getting a lot of information. They are exposed to various behaviors of people from different backgrounds. This has shaped their behaviors and as a result, their culture has changed. Looking at images, there are a lot of magazines that are produced daily and some of them contain information on sexuality. If not protected, children are even learning from parent’s magazines, which ruin their identity or lead them to actions, which are not fit for them. Looking at the topic on the painted babies, there is much that children learn from media. The first important thing is the issue of gender and the behaviors of the two genders. The media has made children know their gender as part of their culture. According to certain information from written sources, I have realized that children learn about different behaviors through the media. As part of their culture, children identify themselves with the two cultures and they tend to behave like the genders, which they belong. It is good to understand that the topic on children’s culture creates an understanding about the behavior of children. As children grow, they tend to identify themselves with the things, which are found in their environment. It is part of their culture where they influenced this shaping their lives. It is important to note that as part of children’s culture, the issue of feminism has been brought in considering that girls have been exposed to activities, which relate to female gender. Boys, on the other hand, they have exposed to matters, which relate to male gender this showing that children’s culture has been affected by issues, which need to be solved. That shows that there is something that needs to be done in order to protect children (Banet-Weiser, 1999).

Conclusion
In conclusion, the Painted Babies documentary has provided information on sexuality. Feminism is an issue, which has been, discussed where girls in the documentary are forced to conduct themselves in a way that they are able to please men. There is a need for further research in order to identify other concepts that researchers have left out. The topic on children’s culture is broad and as discussed, there are areas, which needs to be improved in order to gain enough information. According to the debates which are going on concerning the culture of children, proper research will serve as an answer to the question, which is being asked. The findings show that painted babies form part of children’s culture and above that, it is a modern type of culture, which has been adopted by children. The media has contributed in this kind of transformation in culture. There is also need to focus on the limitations, which were evident in the process of conducting the research. The problem of lacks enough sources and complete experiments are a problem, which needs to be solved. This can be done through creating a proper channel in which researchers can access information with no struggle. The research is, therefore, important since it educates parents and other people who take part in the development of children on the need for considering children as people who possess their own culture.

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Reference
Robinson, K. H., & Davies, C. (2008). ‘SHE’S KICKIN’ASS, THAT’S WHAT SHE’S DOING!’ Deconstructing Childhood ‘Innocence’in Media Representations. Australian Feminist Studies, 23(57), 343-358.

Cartwright, M. M. (2012). Princess by Proxy: What Child Beauty Pageants Teach Girls About Self-Worth and What We Can Do About It. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(11), 1105-1107.

Connolly, C. N. (2011). ” Baby, I wish we could get you some lips for Christmas”: investigating cultural disregard for girls through the promotion of hegemonic and sexualized femininity, and celebrity in Toddlers & Tiaras.

Goldfaden, J. (2007). Documentary. Salmagundi, 126-142.

Banet-Weiser, S. (1999). The most beautiful girl in the world: Beauty pageants and national identity. Univ of California Press.

English Language Learners
Growth & Development in Inclusive
Early Childhood Education
Fall 2015 – Dr. Beaunae
Who Are English Language Learners?
Limited English Proficient (ELP)or English
language Learners (ELL)?
• ELL is the term currently preferred by
researchers and practitioners
• LEP is the term use in federal law
• There are over 5.5 million
ELLs in the United States:
http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d13/table
s/dt13_204.20.asp
Who Are English Language
Learners?
• Most common language: Spanish (80% of
ELLs)
• Other languages: Russian, Polish, Mandarin,
Korean, Arabic, Urdu, Tagalog, Lao, Japanese
• 77% of all ELLs come from low-income families
• ELL tend to be overrepresented in SPED
classes or for SPED
• http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_c
gf.asp
Who Are ELL Students?
• ELLs tend to be in schools that are
linguistically homogeneous (English-only) and
have high numbers of low-income students
• Many ELLS are in schools with unqualified
teachers, and inadequate resources
• ELLs whose home language is Spanish have
the highest HS dropout rate in the U.S.
– In some states the dropout rate is close to 50%
Improve General Education? According to
the DOE:
• Employ gen ed teachers who can teach an increasingly
diverse student population
– Children from diverse cultural backgrounds
• Gen Ed and SPED teachers can be taught to teach to children from
diverse cultural backgrounds (if they speak English)
– Children living in poverty
• Gen Ed and SPED teachers can be taught to teach to children who
live in poverty (if they speak English)
– English language learners
• Teaching English as a Second Language is a teaching field in and of
it self – it is called language acquisition (LA)!
• LA cannot be taught in a professional development in-service
• ELLs need teachers trained in language acquisition – ESL teachers
Improve General Education: Strategies
• Teacher teams to improve instruction in general education
– Data driven
– Collaborative
– School-wide interventions
– Appropriate language supports
• Parent and community involvement
– How can schools understand their students if they don’t understand
where they come from?
• How can teachers work with ELLs if they don’t understand the
pedagogy behind language acquisition?
Understanding ELLs in Schools
• Factors that play a part in ELLs’ achievement and
language learning
– Language development
• First are they proficient in their home language?
• Can they read and write in their home language?
– Second language acquisition
• Are they being properly taught English?
• Have they learned conversational English?
• Have they been taught to read and write in English?
– Acculturation
• How long have they been in the states?
– Education history
• What is their educational background
7
ELLs in School: The Prism Model
1. All 4 dimensions must
be addressed if ELLs are to be successful
2. Each dimension is interrelated
and should not be
addressed in isolation
3. Child must develop
social language first
8
Social
&
Cultural
Processes
L1 & L2 Cognitive Development
Sociocultural Dimension
• At the heart of the model
• Encompasses the complex sociocultural
factors that are critical to the academic
success of ELLs
– Acculturation processes
– Cultural and social identity development
– Forming positive interpersonal relationships
9
Acculturation
• The process of adjusting to a new or nonnative
culture
– The classroom environment should support the
ELL’s ethnic identity
• A daily goal – not a once-a-year celebration
• Teachers’ lack of understanding regarding the
influences of the acculturation process is often
responsible for the over-referral of ELLs into
special education
10
Cognitive Dimension
• Development of cognitive processes in L1 and
L2
– Development of skills in cognitively demanding,
decontextualized learning tasks and environments
– Development of the declarative and procedural
knowledge base
– Capacity building for memory processes
– Development of learning strategies
11
The Academic Dimension
• Academic language necessary to perform well
in subject-area domains
– Transfer of academic knowledge and skills from L1
to L2
– Integration of concepts learned across disciplines
– The resolution of knowledge gaps
12
Academic Language
Proficiency in L2
• An advanced level of language development
• Involves the capacity to understand and
produce language that is both abstract and
complex
• No longer need nonverbal cues
13
Academic Language, continued
• Those who are at the conversational level
might not have academic proficiency (but
might appear so)
• The BICS/CALP distinction is critical
• Since such students appear fluent because
they are conversational, it is assumed that
they can handle cognitively demanding work
in L2
14
Definition of
Language Proficiency
• A student’s performance in understanding and
using a language in both informal social
settings and formal settings
15
Misconceptions About
Language Proficiency
• Confusion between the surface or
conversational aspects of students’ language
and the deeper aspects of proficiency
• A false assumption is made that if a student
can converse, then that student can perform
academic work
16
Dimensions of Language Proficiency
• Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
(BICS)
• Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
(CALP)
17
BICS
• Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
• Conversational abilities
• Use of contextual or paralinguistic (e.g.,
gestures, intonation) cues
18
CALP
• Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
• The ability to make complex meaning explicit
in either oral or written modalities by means
of language itself rather than contextual or
paralinguistic cues
19
Classify English Language Learners For
Evaluation Purposes
• Limited English proficient – recent arrival
(less than one year).
• Limited English proficient – one to three
years.
• Long-term limited English proficient – over
three years (regardless of services).

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