Do all living individual things have intrinsic value?

For this assignment, please do the following: From the 5 choices below, decide which offers the best ethical approach to understanding the moral status of the environment and our relationship to it. You must decide which ethic is best if you had to choose. You must explain and critique the 5 approaches to environmental ethics listed below. You can use other articles in the textbook to find critiques of the theories. You can utilize your work on previous assignments. Please read my “Table of the Development of Environmental Ethics” that is on the Assignments Page.
1. Anthropocentric Ethics (Explain Kant and some interpretations of the Bible)
2. Animal Rights and Welfare (Explain Tom Regan and Peter Singer)
3. Biocentric Ethics (Explain Paul Taylor)
4. Ecocentric Ethics (Explain Aldo Leopold and Callicott)
5. Deep Ecology (Explain Arne Naess’ articles and the article by Bill Devall and George Sessions on Deep Ecology.)
To decide, you should consider these issues:
Do only humans have intrinsic value, and everything else has value only insofar as it affects humans?
Do some animals have intrinsic value? If so, why and which ones?
Do all living individual things have intrinsic value?
Should we go further and include non-living wholes, like ecological systems, or even the whole biosphere of the planet?
Recognize the distinction between valuing living individuals (biocentrism) and wholes like forests, rivers, and mountains (ecocentrism and deep ecology).
What are the basic criteria for having moral value in each of these theories. What are their main principles? Are they good?
What are the specific arguments of the philosophers? Are they good?
Consider that the best theory should help us confront, recognize, and solve serious environmental problems.
Please use the following format below and instructions for writing your papers (see below). Please make sure that the section headings in bold below are typed into your paper and type underneath each heading. Instructions on what goes under each section are explained in parentheses below. The absolute minimum word count is 1200 words. I won’t accept less. You may write as much as you need to do excellent work. Submit the following sheet below. Again, type in your paper all of the headings that appear in bold below. Please do not include any instructions in your paper.

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