Does this area have any past history of earthquake activity? Briefly discuss.

Time of Origin? (And how does this compare with the time you estimated from your analysis of the three seismograms?)
Type of fault?

Does this area have any past history of earthquake activity? Briefly discuss.
An interesting and important contrasting character of earthquakes in the eastern U.S. as compared with the western U.S. is that earthquake waves travel very much more efficiently without weakening much in the stronger crust of the eastern U.S. This results in a much larger “felt-area” for the earthquake as reflected in “Did You Feel It?” (DYFI) reports. Briefly discuss and describe the contrast in the extent of the felt-area for this earthquake vs. a typical California earthquake of similar magnitude.
Open the Wikipedia page for the earthquake in a separate tab, and briefly summarize its main effects.

The U.S. Geological Survey employs a system called “Pager” that automatically models expected levels of groundshaking and estimates anticipated levels of damage due to an earthquake of a given magnitude anywhere in the U.S. Select this page to study the estimates provided for this quake by the Pager system. In the space below, copy and paste the histograms summarizing the relative probabilities of expected number of fatalities and property damage costs, and the map of population exposure at various intensity levels. Note that the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale has been attached to the end of this hand-out for your reference.

Now, return to the main page for the Virginia earthquake, and then navigate to the interactive map. How closely did the predicted Intensity map by Pager match the actual intensity map for the earthquake. How and why would it be useful is it to planners and first responders to have this capacity for forecasting the likely intensity and distribution of earthquake damages based on different earthquake scenarios?

One of the most widely reported damages from this earthquake was the cracking of the Washington monument.
How far away is Washington from the epicenter of this earthquake, and what was the expected and recorded intensity in the Washington area? Would significant structural damage normally be expected in this intensity zone?
Can you suggest any aspects of the construction of the Washington Monument that could have made it more vulnerable to earthquake damage?
Note there is a geologic map of the area surrounding the monument. What soil type characterizes the monument area of Washington, D.C.? (Note, FEMA has a very brief tutorial on soil types and earthquake hazards, which you can view at ). Based on a review of these conditions, are there any aspects of the foundation or substrate conditions at the site of the Washington Monument that may have made it more vulnerable to earthquake damage?

Modified Mercalli Earthquake Intensity Scale

I. Not felt Not felt except by very few under especially favorable conditions.
II. Weak Felt only by a few people at rest, especially on upper floors of buildings.
III. Weak Felt quite noticeably by people indoors, especially on upper floors of buildings. Many people do not recognize it as an earthquake. Standing motor cars may rock slightly. Vibrations similar to the passing of a truck. Duration estimated.
IV. Light Felt indoors by many, outdoors by few during the day. At night, some awakened. Dishes, windows, doors disturbed; walls make cracking sound. Sensation like heavy truck striking building. Standing motor cars rocked noticeably.
V. Moderate Felt by nearly everyone; many awakened. Some dishes, windows broken. Unstable objects overturned. Pendulum clocks may stop.
VI. Strong Felt by all, many frightened. Some heavy furniture moved; a few instances of fallen plaster. Damage slight.
VII. Very strong Damage negligible in buildings of good design and construction; slight to moderate in well-built ordinary structures; considerable damage in poorly built or badly designed structures; some chimneys broken.
VIII. Severe Damage slight in specially designed structures; considerable damage in ordinary substantial buildings with partial collapse. Damage great in poorly built structures. Fall of chimneys, factory stacks, columns, monuments, walls. Heavy furniture overturned.
IX. Violent Damage considerable in specially designed structures; well-designed frame structures thrown out of plumb. Damage great in substantial buildings, with partial collapse. Buildings shifted off foundations.
X. Extreme Some well-built wooden structures destroyed; most masonry and frame structures destroyed with foundations. Rails bent.
XI. Extreme Few, if any, (masonry) structures remain standing. Bridges destroyed. Broad fissures in ground. Underground pipe lines completely out of service. Earth slumps and land slips in soft ground. Rails bent greatly.
XII. Extreme Damage total. Waves seen on ground surfaces. Lines of sight and level distorted. Objects thrown upward into the air.

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