17-20 emailed but can’t open (Caroline)
21) How is it possible to explain both the political instability and cultural productivity of the Italian Renaissance?
22) Describe Renaissance art. What were its themes/techniques? How were artists trained and what was their societal status? How did they support themselves?
23) Luther’s Rebellion started against a backdrop of problems. What were the intellectual, social, political, and economic factors that led Luther to challenge the church and help explain the rapid spread of his beliefs?
24) Discuss Martin Luther’s personal struggle over the issue of salvation, and explain how it was related to the issue of indulgences and to the ninety-give theses.
- Explain why and to whom Luther’s ideas appealed and how they were spread.
- What was the outcome of the conflict between Catholics and Lutherans in the Holy Roman Empire?
- Describe Luther’s political and social views, explain their religious and practical foundations, and apply them to the situation of the Peasant Revolt.
- Analyze the beliefs of John Calvin, especially on the issue of salvation. What were the political and social implications of Calvin’s beliefs?
- How was the English reformation different from religious reform on the continent? How was it similar? What were the long-term consequences of the English reformation?
Analyze the factors that contributed to the radical reformation. What were the general characteristics and specific beliefs of the Anabaptists.
Discuss the roman catholic reaction to the reformation. What steps did the church take to fight Protestantism in Europe?
Describe the ways in which the reformation contributed to the further breakup of the medieval world and the coming of the modern age.
33)-Compare and contrast the ideas of Huss and Luther. Why was Luther able to succeed in his revolt, whereas Huss was not?
34)-What role did religious freedom play in the Reformation? How was it understood by Luther? By the Anabaptists?
35)- Why did Protestantism succeed in Germany, parts of France, and England, while Catholicism strongly survived in Italy and elsewhere?
36)- Explain the Council of Trent and the specific changes the Catholic Church made to challenge Protestantism
37) Defend BOTH of the following assertions: a. the reformation was the culmination of the medieval experience and b. the reformation was the beginning of the modern world.
38) Although the protestant reformation is usually interpreted as a religious movement it did have a profound impact on European civilization in general. Discuss the political, social, and economic consequences of the reformation.
39) What were the forces behind European expansion I the 15th and 16th centuries?
40) Define and describe the price revoltion and explain how it was connected to the expansion of Europe.