Explain the clinical association or relationship between UTI and confusion in the elderly

Referencing Instructions: between 10-12 reference. No older than 10 years.

CDU APA STYLE REFERENCING. Please use reference which freely accessible on CDU library cite or Google scholar

Assignment 2 CASE STUDY

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John Gower is a 78-year old Australian Aboriginal man who is living alone in Bagot Community. He was found collapsed at home by his grandson Simon; St John ambulance was called and he was transferred to the Emergency Department of Royal Darwin Hospital, Tiwi, NT. He worked as a manual labourer, often smoking during outdoor work in Palmerston City Council, as he mainly worked alone. On presentation to the triage,

His clinical signs are:

Temperature: 40 degree Celsius

Pulse: 102 bpm

Respiratory rate: 26 breaths/minute

BP: 90/60 mmHg.

John is conscious at the Emergency Department, however confused to time. He has a past medical history of congestive heart failure and asthma. He requests to go to the toilet and you assist him onto a bedpan. He voids 80 ml of dark, cloudy concreted and highly offensive smelling urine. Flank pain is observed. The Emergency physician recommended moving John into inpatient ward in the NT Renal Department for further investigation and treatment.

A urine analysis reveals:


++ albumin

+++ nitrates

+ leucocytes

++ glucose

+ ketones and specific gravity 1.025.

Questions (250 words each).

Provide a basis for the connection between urinary tract infections (UTI) and acute kidney disease (AKD).

Explain the clinical association or relationship between UTI and confusion in the elderly.

Describe why John’s classical clinical signs have climbed now.

What therapy is needed for John?

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