Functional requirements of an antiporter transport protein

1. Describe the functional requirements of an antiporter transport protein (i.e., what properties must the protein have to operate effectively?). Do antiporters represent an example of passive or active transport? Why?

2. With reference to aquaporins or the bacterial K+ channel, describe how ion channels can ensure ion specificity while maintaining relatively high flow rates?

3.K+ leak channels play an important role in re-establishing membrane potential across cell membranes. Since these channels are always open, how can the [K+] inside the cell be nearly 30X higher than the extracellular concentration at the K+ equilibrium point?

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