How are macrophages involved in the formation of atherosclerosis?

John, an obese 54-year-old Caucasian male, has gotten a recent yearly checkup at the doctor’s office. He was told that he has elevated blood pressure and several risk factors for atherosclerosis. His urinalysis showed glucosuria, and his LDL levels are elevated.

1. What is the technical term for elevated blood pressure?

2. What is an acceptable range for blood pressure for John?

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3. What is atherosclerosis?

4. How are macrophages involved in the formation of atherosclerosis?

5. Why is the glucosuria relevant?

6. What are John’s apparent risk factors for atherosclerosis?

7. What type of pharmacologic treatment would be recommended?

8. What type of lifestyle therapy would be recommended?

Case #5:
Bill Anderson, a 60-year-old Caucasian male of normal build, presents in the emergency room with severely labored breathing. He reports progressively worsening shortness of breath over the past three days. He has been lethargic and has been just “lying around” because of the shortness of breath. The patient also has hypertension and is sweating, but without fever. Upon examining the patient’s medical history, the emergency room doctor learns that Bill has multiple myeloma and has undergone several cycles of chemotherapy, including steroid and high dose thalidomide therapy. The emergency room doctor orders a chest X-ray and echocardiography.

1. What is multiple myeloma?

2. What side effects do multiple myeloma, chemotherapy, immobility, steroids, and thalidomide have in common that could be an issue here?

3. The emergency room doctor suspects a fairly obvious problem, what condition is the doctor trying to confirm?

4. Why is the echocardiogram important?

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