Identify three categories of process improvements that may be applied to organizations

Individual Article Summary


Research and select an article(s)


Summarize the article you have chosen in a 350-word paper. INTRO & CONCLUSION INCLUDED! NO PLAGIARISM!!!


Explain how your selected article(s) relate(s) to two of the five Week 2 Objectives. 


Week 2 Objectives: Existing Work Process:


2.1 Categorize process analysis techniques which are utilized at the various phases of process improvement.


2.2 Explain how baselining and benchmarking are vital to the change process


2.3 Identify three categories of process improvements that may be applied to organizations


2.4 Examine the benefit and importance of accurately documenting the As-Is Process.


2.5 Create an As-Is Process flowchart.


Reference the article according to APA guidelines.




Introduction “A change leader looks for change, knows how to find the right changes and knows how to make them effective both outside the organization and inside it”, said management guru Peter F Drucker. Alan Mulally, of Ford; Jack Welch, of General Electric; Carlos Ghosn, of Renault; and Lou Gerstner of IBM, are examples of leaders who succeeded in overcoming obstacles and in turning round their organizations. Individuals,likeorganizations,undergochange.Thethreemainstagesforhumansarebirth, growthanddeath.Organizations,incontrast,experiencebirth,growth,transformation,decline anddeath.Goodleadersmustintervenebeforetheirorganizationreachesthestageofdecline. Change management involves effecting reform in a systematic, structured and sequential manner to transform the organization from uncertainty to certainty when volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity are around. Change management calls for value-based, principle-centered leadership to achieve organizational transformation effectively. In a nutshell, it is about managing change effectively, with all the tools available, without inviting resistance.


Is change essential? People change with changing times and circumstances and new technologies that affect their personal, professional and social lives. It is almost impossible to avoid change. Organizations must similarly change with the changing times, circumstances and technologies. Customer demands, tastes and preferences change rapidly. Creativity and innovation help companies to stand out from the pack and beat the competition. Change is therefore essential for growth. Change is different from growth. Change may take place overnight. Growth, however, is gradual. Change could be for better or worse, while growth is usually for the better. Growth means stepping into known areas, whereas change means stepping from a known to an unknown area. Growth often demands hard work, whereas change can happen without this.


Why do people resist change? Employees often react negatively to a change in their work location, the nature of their work or the policies and procedures governing their role. The reasons include employees not having the competencies and qualifications needed for their current or new role, fearing that their workload will increase, suspecting the motives of the organization that is requiring them to change and suspecting that they will lose out financially by the change or see their status reduced. These reactions can be reduced by proper training, trust-building measures and constant reassurance.


Change leadership Many people assume that the status quo is good. They fear that change will involve uncertainty and complexity. Change leaders need to build confidence about the merits of change and the need to shed what is not good for the organization. Change leadership is the process of neutralizing the anti-change forces and persuading the people to fall in line for the prosperity of the organization and its people. There are broadly three categories of people – actors, spectators and speed-breakers. Actorshaveapositiveattitudewithlotsofenergytoimplementtheplansofthechangeleaders. Spectators are undecided about the change. They have reservations, apprehensions and queries.Speed-breakersconstantlyprotestaboutchange.Mostpeoplefallwithinthecategory of spectators. Change leaders need to persuade the spectators of the benefits of change and ensure that the speed-breakers do not scuttle the change process. Change leaders must be patient, tactful and tough to handle speed-breakers. Leaders must clear up any confusion through clear communication. They must appreciate the reasons for employees’ feelings and fears and move accordingly. They must clearly state the vision and cultivate hope. They must know and cater to what motivates their people. They should be with the people throughout the change process to clear up their queries, allay their fears and build trust and confidence. Change leaders must provide passion and a strong sense of purpose about change. They must share their power. They must share the vision with their employees so that they feel that they are an integral part of the change process. Leadership guru John Kotter advised: “Do not declare victory too soon”. Anything can happen while change is being implemented and consolidated. For instance, new bottlenecks may crop up and fresh resistance may surface. The speed-breakers are constantly looking out for ways to upset the change process. It is essential not to underestimate their might. Change leaders must focus on both the internal and external environment. The external environment could include, for example, political, economic, social and technological factors. The internal environment most often concerns business strategy, planning and the use of resources. The internal environment is usually easier to deal with than the external.


Characteristics of change leaders Change requires flexible leaders who can adapt to various situations, styles and people, to manage the change successfully. As leadership begins and ends with example, change leaders must “walk the talk”. They must have a strong vision and be clear where they are taking their people. They must possess strong communication skills to get across the message about change and to clear any apprehensions. They must demonstrate fire-fighting and trouble-shooting skills during the process of change. They must empower and motivate others and make change an integral part of the organizational culture. They musthavea“cando”attitudeand be highlyfocusedondoingtherightthings,right.They must have charisma and good listening skills. They must be confident and competent. They must have sound judgment based on the past successes and failures and intuition. They must learn to prioritize tasks and show and celebrate small successes. They must be risk-takers and learn to overcome bureaucratic bottlenecks during the process of change. They must create common ground where people can focus on commonalities rather than differences. They must have a burning desire to effect the change. They must have good analytical and problem-solving skills and be able to see the big picture. Above all, change leaders must be passionate in their endeavors to effect change smoothly and successfully.


Conclusion The only constants in the corporate world are competition and change. Every change is made for a reason. Every change should be followed through only when the positives outweigh the negatives. Change requires a new mindset, tool-set and skill-set. Forthecynic,changecanbestressfulandpainful.Fortheoptimist,itcanbebeneficialand helpful. Mind-set, therefore, plays an important part in successful change. Change is also, probably, unavoidable. As the nineteenth-century British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli once said: “Change is inevitable in a progressive society. Change is constant”. His modern-day successors would undoubtedly agree.

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