Kidney inflammation often results in pain

Kidney inflammation often results in pain in the side of the flank. Which of the following best describes why this is the case?

a. nociceptive sensory fibres from the kidney and the flank converge and synapse with the same neurons in the spinal cord

b. the nerve fibres carrying nociceptive information from the flank run past the kidney on the way to the spinal cord

c. the flank contains lymph nodes that drain extracellular fluid and white blood cells from the kidney

d.inflammatory molecules released from the kidney drain via veins located in the flank which are richly innervated by nociceptors

e. the ureters run down the flank after leaving the kidney and these also become inflammed



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