medical/nursing interventions to prevent the development of heart failure
Obesity Intervention – Establish short and long term goals, encourage calorie intake appropriate for body type and lifestyle, encourage Mrs. J to keep a daily log of food and liquid consumption. Encourage Mrs. J to be more aware of nutritional habits that may contribute to weight gain. Encourage Mrs. J to exercise and encourage consultation of a dietician for further assessment and recommendations regarding a weight loss program. Educate Mrs. J of the importance of routine follow-up MD visits.
High Blood Pressure – Mrs. J has been smoking two packs of cigarettes daily for the last forty years. Smoking cause’s blood pressure to rise but the chemicals in the tobacco causes damage to the lining of the artery walls causing arteries to narrow, increasing the blood pressure. Educating the patient with the outcome of smoking is beneficial. Mrs. J needs to be educated on the importance of taking her blood pressure on daily and keeping a log of the blood pressure reading. Mrs. J should be placed on a low sodium cardiac diet. Educating Mrs. J on the importance of taking her medication on a daily basis as prescribed to prevent organ damage. Informing Mrs. J that lifestyle adjustment must be made to reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. This is not a short term goal and it will take time for patients to get use to the lifestyle change and nursing follow is important for the patient to feel supported and follow the program.
Atrial Fibrillation – Atrial fibrillation is the loss of synchrony between the atria and ventricles. The goal is to maintain adequate cardiac output and tissue perfusion to make sure Mrs. J does not develop a thromboembolism. Monitoring the heart rate is very important and making sure that the systolic rate does not go below 90mmHg. Mrs. J should be educated on reporting any chest discomfort in which oxygen therapy would be beneficial. Continuous cardiac monitoring is imperative. Also making sure Mrs. J receives education on medications such as Amiodarone or Digoxin to control the atrial fibrillation. Educate Mrs. J how to obtain her own pulse and recognize symptoms of toxicity.
Coronary Artery Disease – is the accumulation of plaque buildup on the coronary arteries which leads to blockage. The heart is deprived of oxygen due to the blockage and is unable to pump efficiently. Very important to access patient level of consciousness, evaluate for chest pain, assess heart rate, blood pressure, peripheral pulses, and evaluate skin color and temperature. Provide oxygen in conjunction with medication therapy. Monitor fluid volume to prevent overloading the heart and lungs Reduce anxiety by providing Mrs. J to share her fears or concerns. Provide a quiet environment and uninterrupted sleep.