Overview of Hildegard Peplau

Theories: Hildegard Peplau and Ida Jean Orlando

Renovating bed-side nursing care has been improved by nursing theories which have been proven to have played a major role. Nurses do transition to theory-based care because of the demands of the patient’s quality care and increased knowledge. Nurses use theories as a framework to ensure the delivery of services is expressive and the treatment interventions are rooted in the theory. The nursing profession has enormously grown due to the input incurred by the various nursing theorist. When selecting the best nursing theory to apply in a hospital, nurses compare and contrast different theories, weighing their benefits and drawbacks. The two nursing theory frameworks that are going to be applied in this discussion are Hildegard E. Peplau and Ida Jean Orlando. These two theories will be applied in the nursing practice of reducing infection of CVC’s lines and Foleys in the ICU by using a CHG bath. Therefore, both theories will apply the general population and will involve mutual communication between the nurses and the patient.

Overview of Hildegard Peplau

According to Peplau’s theory, nursing practice is defined as “An interpersonal process of therapeutic interactions between an individual who is sick or in need of health services and a nurse specially educated to recognize, respond to the need for help” (Peplau, 1997). The theory is used as an educating tool and maturing force that allows two individuals to interact with a conjoint objective. According to Peplau, a nurse does not only deliver normal care but also must apply the professional standards in every nursing activity that affects patient care. Nursing roles, especially in traumatic ICU, are a teacher, a counselor, a surrogate, a leader, a stranger, and a resource person. Despite having other nursing roles, these are the primary functions. The primary goal for these roles is to ensure a patient-nurse relationship is strengthened and developed.

Overview of Ida Jean Orlando

Orlando used her own experiences to craft this theory where she states that, a patient may develop feelings of distress or helplessness if he/she cannot cope with their health needs without assistance (Gaudet & Howett, 2018). Although, Orlando theorized that the nurse-patient interaction is determined by both parties. It means, therefore, a patient who establishes a good rapport with a nurse can effectively convey the needs or fears without reluctance. In this case, the nurse acts as a caregiver who gives patients a nurturing and mothering presence to relieve distress (Gaudet & Howett, 2018). What Orlando expected nurses to do while delivering their service is to think about themselves about patient care and not just complete their tasks under the instruction of another person. Nurse care should be personally tailored according to the patient’s needs and this cannot happen when effective communication between patients and nurses is not good. Nurses must act as a patient’s advocate and able to read expressions both non-verbal and verbal to understand the needs that cannot be expressed through words.

Change Project Proposed Plan

Hospital-acquired infections and line-associated bloodstream infections are common to major problems affecting Traumatic ICU departments in hospitals. Therefore, this change project plan developed a proposal care plan to treat a patient with CVS’s lines and Foleys in the trauma ICU unit by suing CHG bath, whereby a nurse use Peplau’s theory to encourage the patient to involve with taking care of their own lines. Peplau’s theory is intensively used by nurses in the traumatic ICU unit because they regularly interview patients to record their progress and educate them on how active they should remain with self-care, informed decision-making skills as well as about self-management (Alligood, 2017). This happens in two ways when nurses understand their patient’s behaviors and their own nursing practice behaviors. Conversely, the nurse can also use Orlando’s theory by considering the nursing profession’s goals and distinctions. The theory assumes that patients have their own understanding of their situations; as a result of this nurses must comprehend this situation before coming up with a solution. In the nursing practice, nurses find Orlando’s theory simple to apply. The primary idea behind the theory is to realize the patient’s outcome and the relationship created between nurses and patients. As a result, nurses can tailor their care by focusing on patient’s needs in a timely planned manner. This process does not happen overnight, because, the patient’s outcome and self-care require new focus strategies and continuing educations (Smith & Parker, 2015). The patient-nurse relationship is enhanced through communication, trust, and validation. To some extent, the patient’s autonomy is encouraged by Orlando’s theory.

Constructed care plan in the change project

The change project plan constructed care that suits our Traumatic ICU patient by using interpersonal relationship theory and nurse’s process in their daily association with the patients. Short-term goals were attained by using the nursing process while long-term goals were achieved by using interpersonal relationships. In this case, nurses in the traumatic ICU used the nursing process to reduce infection of CVC’s lines and Foleys in the ICU by using a CHG bath. The reason for this that the patient’s outcome cannot be evaluated immediately; but first the needs and solutions are introduced by the nurse and then follow up is done throughout the patient’s condition management (Johnson, Edward & Giandinoto, 2018). When reducing line-associated bloodstream infections and Foleys using CHG, Orlando’s theory appropriately fit in Traumatic ICU because care is emphasized on the patient and effective communication. For instance, Orlando’s theory and Peplau can be applicable in a setting where the hospital and the physician use the same charting system. At this juncture, both theories are applicable. Therefore, when treating a patient CVC’S infections and Foleys, the primary needs are captured by the hospital nurses during the interview session. Each time the patient and the medical attendant link up, the medical caretaker is centered on objectives and results. The focal point of the medical attendant could be the health of the patient, their insight into the line related infections and how free they are with dealing with themselves.


Alligood, M. R. (2017). Nursing Theorists and Their Work-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Gaudet, C., & Howett, M. (2018). Communication and Technology: Ida Orlando’s Theory Applied. Nursing science quarterly, 31(4), 369-373.

Johnson, L., Edward, K. L., & Giandinoto, J. A. (2018). A systematic literature review of accuracy in nursing care plans and using standardized nursing language. Collegian, 25(3), 355-361.

Peplau, H. E. (1997). Peplau’s theory of interpersonal relations. Nursing science quarterly, 10(4), 162-167.

Smith, M. C., & Parker, M. E. (2015). Nursing theories and nursing practice. FA Davis.

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