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The respect for nature paradigm requires that all nature be accorded the respect it deserves. All life forms must, therefore, not be viewed as mere resources for human beings, but rather as equally important hence environmental conservation. It was well observed by the hunters and gatherers who held values, beliefs, and practices that were for both the benefits of the environment and that of the human beings. The advantage of this paradigm is that both the ecosystem and human beings lived in harmony and there were equity and social justice among all members of the community. The disadvantage is that it requires people not to own the environment and instead keep moving to different areas. The ownership and control of environment paradigm came about after the transition to farming. People started owning land and utilizing it for agriculture hence human encroachment. Social injustices were committed as the hunters and gatherers were kicked out of their land. Human equity decreased as some owned more land than others. The advantage is that this paradigm allowed for the sustaining of the growing populations. Finally, the paradigm of landscapes in the service of remote consumers came about during urbanization. The environment became more exploited and experienced changes with roads being built to transport food to towns. More social injustices were committed with large disparities in wealth, status and power, leading to inequality. Its disadvantage is that it led to social injustices such as colonization and enslavement while the advantage is that it led to industrialization (Robert and Barry 2014).


Robert, D. & Barry, N. (2014). Understanding human ecology: A systems approach to sustainability. Routledge.

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