PJM310 Introduction to Project Management / 2 Forum responses / 150 – 250 words APA citations

Please reply to the 2 seperate below discussion post with 150 – 250 words and APA citations


  • Chapter 8 & 9 in Project Management: A Managerial Approach
  • Chapter 8 & 9 PowerPoints from Project Management: A Strategic Managerial Approach
  • Part 1, Chapters 6 & 9 in A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge
  • Viswanathan, B. (2015, Apr 8). Understanding responsibility assignment matrix (RACI Matrix). Retrieved from http://project-management.com/understanding-responsibility-assignment-matrix-raci-matrix/


  • Hassan, B., Ahmad, N., & Zuhaira, B. (2018). Calculating completeness of software project scope definition. Information and Software Technology, 94, 208-233.
  • Batts, B. (2016). Three steps to accurate project cost estimates. InTech, 63(4), 24-29.


Resource leveling occurs when tasks, money, or activities need to be re-allocated or intermediate deadlines readjusted in order to account or resource shortfalls. Resource leveling tries to enforce certain constraints (time or people) on the project. This approach can be used when certain critical resources are only available at certain times, only in certain quantities, or are over-allocated, like when someone has been assigned to two different parts of a project simultaneously (Bagheri, 2012).

Resource smoothing changes the activities of a project model so that resources are not over-stretched. In resource smooth, we achieve a desired level of allocation as much as we can without impacting the total project with total float. In smoothing, there is no deviation from the critical path and project completion dates are usually not delayed. Activities, however, might be delayed within their free float, meaning that they can be delayed.

One example of resource leveling would be the following situation: you’re building a two-story structure. You have enough materials for the first story, but not for the second, so you look around and secure those materials but this would mean delaying the construction by one whole week. You extend the schedule to get the needed resource. This is “resource leveling” (Afsari, 2016).

One example of resource smoothing would be knowing that you need to study for ten hours to succeed on a particular test, with the test being in two days. So you have to study for 5 hours a day. But suddenly the professor gets sick and you realize that you can’t take it until next week, meaning that you only have to study for a little more than one hour per day between now and the test. You can see how this would ease the burden of studying for the exam.

Works Cited: Afsari, Mahtab. (2016). Providing a Suitable Model for Solving Resource Leveling in Project Management. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 7(52), pp. 116-121.

Bagheri, Mohsen. (2012). Resource Leveling in Fuzzy Project Scheduling. Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management Istanbul, Turkey. July 3-6, 2012.

Hello Class,

What are resource leveling and resource smoothing?

Resource leveling and resource smoothing both focus on balancing the supply of resources with the demand for those resources (Project Management Institute, 2017). Meredith, Mantel, & Shafer (2017) state that resource leveling is used when resources have been under or over-allocated. The PM reallocates or levels out, these resources, potentially changing the schedule to accommodate the change. In contrast, resource smoothing is used when the schedule cannot be changed. The resources are evenly reallocated within the allocated time (Meredith et al., 2017).

What is the impact on the critical path, and how is “float” used in leveling and smoothing resources?

Dash (2018) states that resource leveling will impact the critical path while resource smoothing will not. This can be attributed to the fact that only resource leveling can be applied to critical path resources. However, both resource leveling and resource smoothing can use free and total float. Float is the term for the “difference between the early dates and the latest possible dates” (Dash, 2018).

Give an example of leveling and smoothing resources on a project you know or can find through research.

Based on my research, I created the following example of leveling and smoothing resources. The PM is scheduling a project to rehab a building. The PM has the materials and the manpower for the main part of the building. However, the materials and requisite manpower for the rest of the building will not be available until later in the month. The PM, under resource leveling, will extend the schedule until the resources are available. In contrast, the PM will, under resource smoothing, need to find a way to reallocate the resources within the existing schedule.


Dash, S. N. (2018, July 6). PMP prep: Resource leveling and resource smoothing. Retrieved from https://www.mpug.com/articles/pmp-prep-resource-le…

Meredith, J.R., Mantel, S.J., & Shafer, S.M. (2017). Project management: A managerial approach (10th ed.). Hoboken: Wiley

Project Management Institute. (2017). A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) (6th ed.). Newton Square, PA: PMI Publications


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