Policymaker Electronic Presentation
Child-targeted advertising has gained prominence ever since marketers recognized children as profitable consumer niche. Young children are increasingly surrounded by food advertising messages on television and other media and interactive networks. These advertisements have been successful because children spend more time on watching television than on any other activity (Calvert, 2008). However, concerns have been raised over the influence of child-directed food advertisements on the rising prevalence of pediatric obesity and overweight cases. In essence, television food advertisement influences children’s food consumption behaviours and choices, which in turn leads to poor eating habits (Termini, Roberto & Hostetter, 2011).
Therefore, the proposed policy will entail the formulation food advertisement guidelines that will limit the exposure of children to food advertisements on television. The policy will particularly focus on banning excessive promotion of unhealthy food in television shows and programs that target the child audience. Furthermore, the policy will mandate advertisers to start promoting healthy eating behaviors. Hence, it will be crucial to visit specific stakeholders not only to familiarize them with the proposed policy but also to garner their legislative support. The process will entail identifying policymakers that have a history and experience on influencing policies concerning pediatric issues.
Review of Empirical Evidence
Children possess astonishing ability to recall content promoted in the advertising messages they watch on television (Sitt and Kunkel, 2008). The effectiveness of television food advertising targeting children is enhanced through the use of cartoons, celebrities, contests, games, kids’ clubs, collectibles, spokes-characters and much more. Product preference develops following exposure to a single advertisement. Repeated exposures to the same advertisement strengthen product preference. Children’s product preference influences their buying requests and children’s requests influences purchasing decisions that their parents make (Calvert, 2008).
Recent discussions over the increasing trend in childhood obesity have focused attention on the role of television in fuelling childhood obesity. Researchers have published study findings pertaining to the correlations between exposure to television food advertisements and children’s food intake. For example, Harris et al. (2009) has found out that child-targeted food advertisements focus largely on promoting foods that have high calorie and sugar content. Such foods include fast foods, confectionaries, carbonated beverages and salty snacks. Harris, Schwartz and Brownell (2010) have established that children exposed to television food advertisements pester their parents to buy the advertised food items than those who are not.
Child-directed food advertisements influence children’s eating habits. The extensive marketing of unhealthy beverages and food has fuelled poor diet and increasing incidences of obesity among children and adolescents across developed nations. A study conducted in Australia indicated that 86% of television food commercials seen by children in 2009 constituted products rich in saturated fat, sugar and/or sodium (Lobstein and Dibb, 2005). Findings from another study contacted in the U.S reported that sugary cereals and fast foods constituted approximately 58% to 60% of all television advertisements seen by adolescents and children.
The United Kingdom and Australia are examples of developed countries that have enacted regulations to limit television food advertisements targeted towards children. These policies require advertisers to promote healthy foods and eating habits (Termini, Roberto & Hostetter, 2011). On the other hand, Norway and Sweden has banned completely the marketing of foods to children of certain ages (Cavert, 2008). In the United States, food companies have developed self-regulations regarding child-targeted television food advertisement. However, major food companies in the U.S have not made significant changes to the food advertisements on television that target children (Sharma, Teret & Brownell, 2010).
Conversely, current policies governing child-targeted food advertisements vary considerably based on their approach and scope. While some have banned the marketing of unhealthy foods to children, others have only set boundaries for the advertisements. For instance, regulations in Australia have focused on reducing the overall amount of airtime devoted to food advertisements during children’s programs (Termini, Roberto & Hostetter, 2011). On the other hand, Canada focused on the content of food advertisements that target children (Dhar & Baylis, 2011). However, the effectiveness of these policies depends on parents’ perceptions about food advertisements targeting children. The government may formulate sound policies but it is the responsibility of parents to control children’s consumption of television content (Sitt and Kunkel, 2008).
The chosen policy issue is significant to nursing for two reasons. First, pediatric obesity and overweight has increasingly become a principal public health concern in the United States. National data collected between 2011 and 2012 has indicated that one in every three American children becomes obese or overweight prior to their fifth birthday (Ogden et al., 2014). Secondly, an elevated BMI in childhood years influences numerous sequels. For instance, findings from various studies indicate that childhood obesity is a prerequisite for type 2 diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy, asthma, sleep apnea, high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure (Freedman, Kettel-Khan & Serdula, 2011; Hughes & Reilly, 2008; Saxe, 2011).
The Policymaker Involved in the Policy Issue
The principal policymaker will be the county representative for the American Academy of Pediatricians. The American Academy of Pediatricians is a federal body that is involved in policy and advocacy issues at the federal, state and community levels. The policymaker will be contacted via an email correspondence that using the email address retrieved from the organization’s website. The first email communication will serve the purpose of sharing the policy issue with the county representative.
The Plan for the Legislative Visit
The visit will entail three critical steps. The first step will be to identify previous and current priority areas for policy development by the chosen policymaker. This step will be crucial to establish how the policy issue will fit in the policymaker’s agenda. The second step will entail establishing first contact with the policymaker through an email correspondence. The initial communication will be essential not only to familiarize the policymaker with the policy issue but also to develop the norms for the visit. The third step will be to make arrangements regarding the appropriate and flexible date and time for a visit. The legislative visit will take place in the county representative’s office. The legislative visit is projected to take place within the next two weeks depending on the availability of the policymaker.
The Message to the Policymaker
Dave is a seven-year-old preschooler with a BMI exceeding the 85th percentile. The concern over Dave’s BMI was noted when he was brought to the hospital for well-child clinic. Dave’s mother was worried over his son’s weight, particularly on the issue of bullying both at school and in the community. Therefore, Dave and his mother were booked for counseling to determine the underlying risk factors for Dave’s problem. During the counseling session, Dave’s mother admitted that his son lives a sedentary lifestyle since he spends his free time watching television and playing video games. Nevertheless, she indicated that she no longer has control over Dave’s eating habits because of his pester power when it comes to food choices.
Child-targeted food advertisement on television uses children’s favorite cartoon characters and celebrities to make the marketed foods more appealing. Documented evidence has shown that these advertisements influence children’s eating habits fundamentally. The television food advertisements that target children have disempowered parents concerning the control over their children’s eating habits. Therefore, this policy issue asks you (the policymaker) to support the development of regulations that will limit advertisers from exposing children to unhealthy foods. The policy issue will also restrict the marketing of unhealthy foods to children. The primary aim of this policy will be to contribute to ongoing initiatives aimed at reversing the rising cases of pediatric obesity and overweight.
Techniques for Delivering the Message
The message will be sent through PowerPoint presentations, as well as brochures. The documents will be emailed to the policymaker prior to scheduling the legislative visit. Since it may not be feasible to exhaust all issues during the visit because of time constraints, email and telephone correspondence will lay the ground for establishing contact. Furthermore, it will be crucial to assess the availability of any current proposals regarding the regulation of television food advertisements targeting children. This evaluation is necessary in the sense that it will determine how the proposed policy can fit into current policy discourses.
The feedback got from the initial email correspondence is that the county representative was willing to engage in further discussion regarding the policy issue. The policymaker indicated that her organization (The American Academy of Pediatricians) is currently developing guidelines for expanding the role of pediatricians in the prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity. Upon further discussion, the policymaker has agreed that its members can start educating parents on the negative effect of television food advertisements that target children while awaiting the full adoption of the policy issue. This decision is essential given that the policy formulation process is complex and takes more time prior to full implementation.
The primary action expected from the policymaker is to lobby their coalition members to influence policy changes at the federal level. Now, the policymaker has consented to a meeting that is scheduled for next week waiting confirmation date. Furthermore, the policymaker has committed to push the policy issue on the top of agenda for her organization at the local level. It is expected that the scheduled meeting will establish milestones in gaining more legislative support from the policymaker.
Pediatric obesity remains a primary concern for policy makers, care providers, and communities. The primary concerns lie in the fact that cases of childhood obesity and overweight continue to rise despite ongoing prevention and treatment strategies. Nevertheless, childhood obesity is a prerequisite for the development of chronic diseases. The growing prevalence of pediatric obesity has occurred at a time when there is increasing movement towards understanding the correlation between childhood obesity and child-targeted television food advertisements. Although current evidence has not established a strong causal relationship between the two phenomena, food advertisements influence children’s eating habits and food choices fundamentally. Thus, it is imperative to regulate these advertisements in order to make pediatric prevention and treatment more effectual.
Calvert, S. L. (2008). Children as consumers: Advertising and marketing. The Future of Children, 18(1), 205-234.
Dhar, T., & Baylis, K. (2011). Fast-food consumption and the ban on advertising targeting children: the Quebec experience. Journal of Marketing Research, 48(5), 799–813.
Freedman, D. S., Kettel-Khan, L., & Serdula M. (2011). The relation of childhood BMI to adult adiposity: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Journal of Pediatric Health, 115(1), 22-27.
Harris, J. L., Pomeranz, J. L., Lobstein, T., & Brownell, K. D. (2009). A crisis in the marketplace: How food marketing contributes to childhood obesity and what can be done. Annual Review of Public Health, 30, 211–225.
Harris, J. L., Schwartz, M. B., & Brownell, K. D. (2010). Marketing foods to children and youth: Licensed characters and other promotions on packaged foods in the supermarket. Public Health Nutrition, 13(3), 409–417.
Hughes, A., & Reilly, J. (2008). Disease management programs targeting obesity in children: Setting the scene for wellness in the future. Disease Management & Health Outcomes, 16(4), 255-266.
Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., & Flegal, K. M. (2014). Prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. Journal of American Medical Association, 311(8), 806-814.
Saxe, J. S. (2011). Promoting healthy lifestyles and decreasing childhood obesity: Increasing physician effectiveness through advocacy. Annals of Family Medicine, 10(9), 546-548.
Sharma, L. L., Teret, S. P., & Brownell, K. D. (2010). The food industry and self regulation: Standards to promote success and to avoid public health failures. American Journal of Public Health, 100(2), 240–246.
Sitt, C., & Kunkel, D. (2008). Food advertising during children’s television programming on broadcast and cable channels. Health Communication, 23(6), 573-584.
Termini, R. B., Roberto, T. A., & Hostetter, S. G. (2011). Food advertising and childhood obesity: A call to action for proactive solutions. Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology, 12(2), 619-651.
Worksheet 3 (ungraded)
1. An actual policymaker visit is required but the student can choose to do this on the phone as opposed to an in-person meeting.
2. Describe your call/visit, include your presentation, and discuss your presentation as it occurred.
3. What was the response of the policymaker(s) to your call/visit? What suggestions and feedback did you receive? How would you define success?
4. What’s the next step in this process? What would beyour follow-up plan? Do you need to take further immediate action? What about a formal ‘thank-you’? What ideas for continued and future advocacy do you have? Please review the example provided in the Planning Your Visit Ungraded Worksheet2.
5. What might you do differently? Why? How? What worked or did not work in your strategy or message? Please support this with evidence.
6. What new insights do you have about your policy issue? Relate this to your initial policy analysis as discussed in Your Policy Priority Paper. Describe with specifics, including references.
7. What new insights do you have about the political and policymaking processes as a result of this experience? Please include references.
8. Is there a possibility of future opportunities as a result of this planned visit? If so, describe. How was this experience important to nursing?
Policymaker Electronic Presentation
Graded Assignment 3
The purpose of this assignment is to: (a) identify and reflect upon key concepts related to your policymaker visit (CO #3); (b) provide empirical evidence to support new insights gained regarding your policy issue and the policymaking process (CO #6); and (c) present ideas in a clear, succinct, and scholarly manner (CO #3).
This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcomes:
(CO#1) Analyze application of theories to the development of policies that affect nursing and health care. (PO 9, 10)
(CO#3) Communicate with policymakers to advocate for effective policies that affect nurses and nursing, consumers, or the health care system. (PO 2,3, 10)
(CO#6) Investigate the interrelationship between policy decisions and evidence-based practice. (PO 4, 7 10)
DUE DATE: Sunday 11:59 p.m. MT at the end of Week 7
TOTAL POINTS: 275 points
Assignment Criteria for Presentation
1. Describe your visit, including any PowerPoint presentation materials that you utilizedduring your policymaker visit. Limit these slides to five slides in this project (of the 15 total slides).
2. Discuss the response of the policymaker to your message/ask/recommendation(s).
3. Reflect on the process, follow-up plans, insights gained about the issue and process, and support with evidence.
4. Describe possible future opportunities as a result of this meeting and their importance to nursing.
5. Provide concluding statements summarizingthe content.
6. Develop a 15-slide PowerPoint presentation with speaker notes in APA format, not including title and reference slides. Write speaker notes sufficient enough to enable someone to take over or give the presentation other than you.
PREPARING THE PRESENTATION
After completing Policymaker Visit Ungraded Worksheet 3, develop an electronic presentation to describe, analyze, and reflect upon your policymaking visit. Include 5 slides from thePowerPoint presentation that you would have used during an actual policymaker visit. Include a minimum of five (5) classic or current references within the past 5 years that specifically support insights gained regarding your policy issue and the policymaking process.
Category Points % Description
Visit Description 50 18 Clearly describes the policymaking visit (includes no more than 5 slides from actual presentation)
Policymaker Response 50 18 Slides and speaker notes discuss response of policymaker to your message/ask/recommendation(s).
Reflections on Process 50 18 Reflections on process (including supportive evidence), follow-up, and insights gained (issue and process) are clearly described in slide and speaker notes.
Future Opportunities 50 18 Describe possible future opportunities as a result of this meeting and their importance to nursing.
Conclusions 45 16 Concluding statements summarize content.
APA format 15 6 Slides, speaker notes, and references are completely consistent with APA format.
Presentation/Writing 15 6 Slide and speaker notes content are accurate.Presentation slides are professional in appearance and tone.Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are consistent with formal written work. Balance among space, words/graphics, and color is effective.
Total 275 100
A quality assignment will meet or exceed all of the above requirements.
Assignment Criteria A
Outstanding or highest level of performance B
Very good or high level of performance C
Competent or satisfactory level of performance F
Poor or failing or unsatisfactory level of performance
Possible Points = 245 Points
Visit Description 50–46 Points 45–42 Points 41–38 Points 37–0 Points
Clearly describes the policymaking visit (includes actual presentation) Description of visit has rare inaccuracy.
Description of visit lacks occasional important element or specificity. Description of visit has multiple instances of inaccuracies or is not addressed.
Policymaker Response 50–46 Points 45–42 Points 41–38 Points 37–0 Points
Slides and speaker notes discuss response of policymaker to your message/ask/recommendation(s) and isclearly articulated. Slides and speaker notes discussing policymaker response has rare inaccuracy. Slides and speaker notes discussing policymaker response occasionally inaccurate or lacks occasional important elements or specificity. Slides and speaker notes discussing policymaker response has multiple inaccuracies or lacks sufficient level of detail.
Reflections on Process 50–46 Points 45–42 Points 41–38 Points 37–0 Points
Reflections on process (including supportive evidence), follow-up,and insights gained (issue and process) are clearly described in slide and speaker notes. Reflection on process, supportive evidence, follow-up, and insights gained has rare inaccuracy within slides and speaker notes. Occasionally inaccurate within slides and speaker notes or lacks occasional important elements or specificity. Reflection on process, evidence, follow-up, and insights is inaccurate within slides and speaker notes or lacks sufficient detail.
Future Opportunities 50–46 Points 45–42 Points 41–38 Points 37–0 Points
Clearly describes possible future opportunities as a result of this meeting and their importance to nursing. Describes possible future opportunities as a result of this meeting and their importance to nursing with further detail or clarity needed. Describes possible future opportunities as a result of this meeting and their importance to nursing with need for further detail or clarity. Does not describe possible future opportunities as a result of this meeting and their importance to nursing.
45–41 Points 40–38 Points 37–34 Points 33–0 Points
Concluding statements summarize content in a clear and articulated manner.
Concluding statements summarizing content have rare inaccuracy or lack of minor details/clarity. Concluding statements lack occasional important element or specificity. Concluding statements have multiple instances of inaccuracies or little detail.
Points Points Points Points
Content Subtotal _____of points
Possible Points = 30 Points
APA format 15–14 Points 13 Points 12–11 Points 10–0 Points
Slides, speaker notes, and references are completely are free from APA errors throughout. There are 1–2 APA format errors. There are 3–4 APA format errors. There are 5 or more APA format errors.
15–14 Points 13 Points 12–11 Points 10–0 Points
Slide and speaker notes content are accurate.Presentation slides are professional in appearance and tone. Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are consistent with formal written work. Balance among space, words/graphics, and color is effective. Presentations slides are professional in appearance and tone with rare exceptions.Slides are + 1 of required number.Speaker notes contain presentation content with rare repetition of slides. Speaker notes lack minor detail or clarity. Presentation slides are professional in appearance and tone with occasional areas needing improvements in style.Slides are + 2 of required number.Speaker notes contain presentation content with occasional repetition of slides. Speaker notes lack detail or clarity.
Most presentation slides are not professional in appearance and tone with numerous areas needing improvements in style.Slides are + 3 of required number.Speaker notes contain presentation content with multiple repetitions of slides or lack significant detail.
Format Subtotal _____of 30 points
Total Points _____of points
Policymaker Electronic Presentation