research study found that people who look at real visual images and then are asked to simply imagine looking at visual images:
are often unable later to distinguish between the images they had really seen and the imagined images.
are typically able later to distinguish between the images they had really seen and the imagined images.
often remember only some of the images.
are often unable to remember any of the images.
In a study discussed in the textbook that researched the effects of different types of information on memory, subjects viewed a slide presentation of a traffic accident. The actual slide presentation contained a stop sign, but in a written summary of the presentation, the sign was referred to as a yield sign. What were the results of this study?
Subjects who were given no information after viewing the slides were far less accurate in their memories for the kind of sign present than were subjects who were given misleading information.
Subjects who were given misleading information prior to viewing the slides were far less accurate in their memories for the kind of sign present than were subjects who were given no information.
Subjects who were given misleading information prior to viewing the slides were far more accurate in their memories for the kind of sign present than were subjects who were given no information.
Subjects who were given misleading information after viewing the slides were far less accurate in their memories for the kind of sign present than were subjects who were given no such information.
Which of the following best describes psychologist John Kihlstrom’s comments when talking about Bartlett’s book on memory?
Memory is more like making up a story than it is like reading a book.
Memory is more like reading a book than it is like going to a movie.
Memory is more like reading a book than it is like making up a story.
Memory is more like a movie than it is like taking a photograph.
Psychologists consider memory to be:
a passive storage bank of experiences.
only possible with effort.
limited to encoding sensory information.
an active system.
If you move from the United States to England and have trouble adjusting to driving on the left side of the road, you are experiencing:
memory trace decay.
The phrase use it or lose it refers to which theory of forgetting?
Brenda called Mike while he was in the middle of the meeting to ask him to pick up some milk on his way home from work. When Mike got home he didn’t have the milk, and Brenda was angry. Mike may have experienced
Mrs. Tuttle was 97 years old and suffered from forgetfulness and mental confusion. She was probably experiencing:
The ________ effect suggests that the first and last person interviewed for a job will be better remembered by the interviewer than all the people in the middle.
On the Internet, each website has its own specific information but is also linked to many other related sites. In addition, a person can have open more than one site at the same time. This pattern of organization may be very similar to how:
the mind organizes the information stored in long-term memory.
short-term memories are forgotten.
long-term memories are forgotten.
the mind organizes the information stored in short-term memory.
An eyewitness was asked to testify in court about her memory of a crime that took place on her street. Prior to her testimony, an attorney provided her with a written statement from another neighbor who had also viewed the crime. As a result of reading her neighbor’s statement, which was different from her own, the accuracy of her memory was altered, which eventually affected her testimony. This is an example of:
the levels-of-processing model.
the misinformation effect.
the curve of forgetting.
To help students learn new psychology terms, Professor Williams encourages the students to think deeply about the meaning of the words by asking them to provide examples of each term and to use each one in a sentence. Professor Williams is using which model of memory?
parallel distributed processing
Donyelle finds that she performs better on the exams that are given in her regular psychology classroom than in the large lecture room that is used to give midterms and finals to several sections at once. Donyelle’s experience illustrates:
the role of the recency effect.
the role of the primacy effect.
the importance of maintenance rehearsal in memory.
the importance of retrieval cues in memory.
In the information-processing model, the first stage of memory is ______ memory.
The most efficient way of transferring short-term memory into long-term memory is by using:
_________ is the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input.
According to Craik and Lockhart, information that is _______ will be remembered more effectively and for a longer period of time.
repeated many times
processed according to the sound of the physical characteristics of the words
What is the best way for a person to overcome the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon?
Think about the length of the word or concept.
Think about words that may sound like the word you are trying to retrieve.
Stop trying to remember the information you are trying to retrieve.
Name the letters that start or end the word.
Elizabeth Loftus’ research determined that:
eyewitness testimony is generally accurate and reliable.
people tend to forget memories that are painful.
what people see and hear about an event after the fact can easily affect the accuracy of their memories of that event.
flashbulb memories are rarely an accurate memory of the actual event.
The fact that everyone remembers that George Washington was the first president points to the primacy effect as a result of:
short-term memory storage.
long-term memory storage.
Why do flashbulb memories seem so vivid and exact?
Emotional reactions seem to stimulate a person’s ability to engage in elaborative rehearsal that is known to enhance the formation of sensory memories.
Emotional reactions seem to stimulate the release of hormones that have been shown to enhance the formation of sensory memories.
Emotional reactions seem to stimulate the release of hormones that have been shown to enhance the formation of long-term memories.
Emotional reactions seem to stimulate a person’s ability to engage in elaborative rehearsal that is known to enhance the formation of long-term memories.
The _______ is the part of the brain that is responsible for the formation of new long-term declarative memories.
In one study with depressed patients who were being treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), patients were tested for their memory of certain television programs both before and after the treatment. What was the result?
Patients’ memories of programs were not affected.
Patients forgot older programs but remembered more recent ones.
Patients forgot programs in a random pattern.
Patients forgot more recent programs but remembered older ones.
Ebbinghaus’s ________ shows that forgetting happens quickly, within the first hour, and then tapers off gradually.
curve of forgetting
distributed practice theory
encoding failure theory
A(n) ________ is a memory expert or someone with exceptional memory ability.