RELIGION AND PSYCHOLOGY-FREUD ARGUES THAT RELIGIOUS IDEAS ARE ILLUSIONS, THAT IS, FULFILLMENTS OF INFANTILE WISHES. DO YOU AGREE WITH HIM? WHY OR WHY NOT? ORDER DESCRIPTION THE TOPIC IS THAT FREUD ARGUES THAT RELIGIOUS IDEAS ARE ILLUSIONS, THAT IS, FULFILLMENTS OF INFANTILE WISHES. DO YOU AGREE WITH HIM? WHY OR WHY NOT? YOUR ESSAY IS TO BE TYPED AND DOUBLE-SPACED. USE STANDARD FONT, E.G., 12 PT. PAPERS THAT EXCEED THE MAXIMUM WORD LIMIT WILL BE PENALIZED. YOUR ESSAY IS TO BE TYPED AND DOUBLE-SPACED. PLEASE USE STANDARD FONT, E.G., 12 PT. PAPERS THAT EXCEED THE MAXIMUM WORD LIMIT WILL BE PENALIZED. ESSAY TOPICS WILL BE POSTED ON THE COURSE CONTENT PAGE FOUR WEEKS PRIOR TO WHEN THE ESSAY IS DUE. YOU WILL BE ASKED TO CHOOSE ONE OF A SELECTION OF ESSAY TOPICS BASED SPECIFICALLY ON THE COURSE MATERIAL. THE FOLLOWING DESCRIPTION OF PLAGIARISM IS ADAPTED FROM A HANDOUT WRITTEN BY PROFESSOR MALCOLM WOODLAND OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. THE EXAMPLE HE USES COMES FROM ENGLISH LITERATURE BUT IS APPLICABLE TO ALL ACADEMIC WORK. THERE ARE NO “GREY AREAS IN PLAGIARISM. YOU’VE EITHER BEEN HONEST IN YOUR WORK OR YOU HAVEN’T. IF FOR ANY REASON YOU DECIDE TO CONSULT SOME PUBLISHED MATERIAL ON THE WORK YOU ARE DISCUSSING IN YOUR ESSAY, YOU MUST INDICATE EXACTLY HOW THIS WORK HAS INFLUENCED YOUR ESSAY. THIS PROCESS INVOLVES TWO SIMPLE STEPS FIRST, YOU MUST INCLUDE IN YOUR LIST OF “WORKS CITED AN ENTRY FOR EVERY PUBLICATION YOU REFER TO IN THE COURSE OF YOUR ESSAY. THEN, YOU MUST ENSURE THAT EVERY QUOTATION OR PARAPHRASE FROM EACH SUCH WORK IS FOLLOWED BY A PARENTHETICAL REFERENCE TO THE RELEVANT PUBLICATION IN YOUR LIST OF “WORKS CITED. WHILE GENERAL KNOWLEDGE DOES NOT NEED TO BE REFERENCED (E.G., CANADA IS IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE) THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS A BOOK OR ARTICLE THAT HAS INFLUENCED YOU IN A “GENERAL WAY, BUT TO WHICH YOU MAKE NO REFERENCE IN YOUR ESSAY. IF THE WORK IN QUESTION HAS INFLUENCED YOUR ESSAY, IT WILL BE APPROPRIATELY ACKNOWLEDGED THEREIN THROUGH REFERENCED QUOTATIONS AND/OR PARAPHRASES. SUCH USE OF SECONDARY MATERIAL IS NOT A SIGN OF WEAKNESS OR OF A LACK OF ORIGINALITY, BUT RATHER DEMONSTRATES GOOD RESEARCH SKILLS AND A WILLINGNESS TO LEARN AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE ABOUT THE TOPIC. IT SHOWS A REALIZATION THAT SCHOLARSHIP IS A CONVERSATION AMONG WRITERS INTERESTED IN THE SAME SUBJECTS, AND INDICATES YOUR EAGERNESS TO PARTICIPATE IN THAT CONVERSATION ON AN EQUAL FOOTING WITH MORE EXPERIENCED CRITICS. FAILURE TO INDICATE HOW YOU HAVE USED SUCH MATERIAL, ON THE OTHER HAND, CONTRAVENES THE ACADEMIC GUIDELINES OF THE UNIVERSITY AND WILL BE PUNISHED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THOSE GUIDELINES. THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLES OF PLAGIARISM ALL INVOLVE THE MISUSE OF PUBLISHED MATERIAL. IT GOES WITHOUT SAYING THAT THE SUBMISSION OF WORK THAT MAKES UNACKNOWLEDGED USE OF UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL WRITTEN BY ANY PERSON OTHER THAN YOURSELF (I.E. A FRIEND OR A PERSON TO WHOM YOU HAVE PAID MONEY FOR SUCH WORK) ALSO CONSTITUTES PLAGIARISM. PLAGIARISM SEVEN METHODS HERE IS A SENTENCE FROM A CRITIC WHO HAS WRITTEN A BOOK ABOUT FLANNERY O’ CONNOR. THE BOOK IS BY RICHARD GIANNONE THE TITLE IS FLANNERY O’CONNOR AND THE MYSTERY OF LOVE. THROUGHOUT HER CONTRIVING, THE GRANDMOTHER COUCHES SELF-INTEREST IN A LANGUAGE OF MORALS THAT SHIFTS RESPONSIBILITY ONTO OTHERS. NOW, HERE ARE SEVEN DIFFERENT WAYS IN WHICH A STUDENT MIGHT PLAGIARIZE THIS PASSAGE METHOD #1 A STUDENT HAS WRITTEN THE FOLLOWING TWO SENTENCES AS PART OF AN ESSAY. THE ESSAY DOES NOT CONTAIN A LIST OF “WORKS CITED THE GRANDMOTHER SEEMS AT FIRST TO BE A THOROUGHLY UNPLEASANT CHARACTER. THROUGHOUT HER CONTRIVING, THE GRANDMOTHER COUCHES SELF-INTEREST IN A LANGUAGE OF MORALS THAT SHIFTS RESPONSIBILITY ONTO OTHERS. THIS IS PLAGIARISM, SINCE THE AUTHOR’S WORDS HAVE BEEN COPIED EXACTLY FROM THE SOURCE, AND AT NO TIME IS THE AUTHOR OF THAT SOURCE ACKNOWLEDGED. METHOD #2 THIS TIME, THE STUDENT HAS WRITTEN THE SAME TWO SENTENCES SHOWN IN METHOD #1, BUT HAS INCLUDED AN ENTRY FOR THE SOURCE OF THE SECOND SENTENCE IN HIS/HER LIST OF “WORKS CITED (NORMALLY, THIS LIST WOULD BE PLACED AT THE VERY END OF THE PAPER) THE GRANDMOTHER SEEMS AT FIRST TO BE A THOROUGHLY UNPLEASANT CHARACTER. THROUGHOUT HER CONTRIVING, THE GRANDMOTHER COUCHES SELF-INTEREST IN A LANGUAGE OF MORALS THAT SHIFTS RESPONSIBILITY ONTO OTHERS. WORKS CITED GIANNONE, RICHARD. FLANNERY O’CONNOR AND THE MYSTERY OF LOVE. URBANA UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS PRESS, 1989. THE STUDENT HAS STILL COMMITTED PLAGIARISM, SINCE THE READER HAS NO IDEA THAT THE SECOND SENTENCE IN THE GIVEN PASSAGE HAS COME FROM THIS SOURCE. YOU MUST SEPARATE ALL QUOTATIONS FROM YOUR OWN TEXT BY PLACING THE QUOTED MATERIAL WITHIN QUOTATION MARKS OR, IN THE CASE OF LONGER QUOTATIONS, BY INDENTING THE ENTIRE QUOTATION AND IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT THE QUOTATION BE FOLLOWED BY A PARENTHETICAL REFERENCE TO THE SOURCE OF THE QUOTATION. LISTING A WORK IN YOUR “WORKS CITED TO WHICH YOU MAKE NO DIRECT REFERENCE IN YOUR ESSAY IS TANTAMOUNT TO PLACING A 36-POINT BOLDFACE BANNER AT THE END OF THE ESSAY THAT READS “THIS ESSAY CONTAINS PLAGIARIZED MATERIAL. YOU SHOULD NEVER LIST A WORK IN YOUR “WORKS CITED IF YOU HAVE NOT REFERRED TO IT IN THE COURSE OF THE ESSAY. METHOD #3 THE STUDENT HAS INDICATED THE SOURCE AND PAGE NUMBER OF THE QUOTATION IN A PARENTHETICAL REFERENCE AFTER THE BORROWED SENTENCE, AND GIVEN THE DETAILS ABOUT THE SOURCE IN THE LIST OF “WORKS CITED THE GRANDMOTHER SEEMS AT FIRST TO BE A THOROUGHLY UNPLEASANT CHARACTER. THROUGHOUT HER CONTRIVING, THE GRANDMOTHER COUCHES SELF-INTEREST IN A LANGUAGE OF MORALS THAT SHIFTS RESPONSIBILITY ONTO OTHERS (GIANNONE, 48). WORKS CITED GIANNONE, RICHARD. FLANNERY O’CONNOR AND THE MYSTERY OF LOVE. URBANA UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS PRESS, 1989. THE STUDENT HAS STILL PLAGIARIZED THE PASSAGE, SINCE S/HE HAS FAILED TO PLACE QUOTATION MARKS AROUND THE SENTENCE. THE STUDENT IS THUS FALSELY CLAIMING THESE WORDS TO BE HIS/HER OWN PARAPHRASE OF THE SOURCE. METHOD #4 THIS STUDENT HAS PROVIDED WHAT SHE CLAIMS TO BE A PARAPHRASE OF THE PASSAGE, AND GIVEN A PARENTHETICAL REFERENCE TO THE SOURCE LISTED IN THE “WORKS CITED THE GRANDMOTHER SEEMS AT FIRST TO BE A THOROUGHLY UNPLEASANT CHARACTER. FOR EXAMPLE, SHE DISGUISES PERSONAL WANTS IN A LANGUAGE OF ETHICS THAT REDIRECTS ACCOUNTABILITY ONTO OTHERS (GIANNONE, 48). WORKS CITED GIANNONE, RICHARD. FLANNERY O’CONNOR AND THE MYSTERY OF LOVE. URBANA UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS PRESS, 1989. THIS IS PLAGIARISM, BECAUSE THE PARAPHRASE IS NOT A TRUE PARAPHRASE IT FOLLOWS THE EXACT SENTENCE STRUCTURE OF THE ORIGINAL SENTENCE, AND DOES NOT REPRESENT THE STUDENT’S OWN INTERPRETATION OF WHAT THE CRITIC IN QUESTION IS SAYING. THE STUDENT HAS DONE NO ORIGINAL THINKING. METHOD #5 AGAIN, THE STUDENT HAS PROVIDED WHAT S/HE CLAIMS TO BE A PARAPHRASE OF THE PASSAGE, AND GIVEN A PARENTHETICAL REFERENCE TO THE SOURCE LISTED IN THE “WORKS CITED THE GRANDMOTHER SEEMS AT FIRST TO BE A THOROUGHLY UNPLEASANT CHARACTER. FOR EXAMPLE, SHE USES A LANGUAGE OF MORALS IN WHICH TO COUCH SELF-INTEREST, AND THEREBY SHIFTS RESPONSIBILITY ONTO OTHERS THROUGHOUT HER CONTRIVING (GIANNONE, 48). WORKS CITED GIANNONE, RICHARD. FLANNERY O’CONNOR AND THE MYSTERY OF LOVE. URBANA UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS PRESS, 1989. THIS SAMPLE IS STILL NOT A TRUE PARAPHRASE THE STUDENT HAS MERELY REARRANGED THE STRUCTURE OF THE ORIGINAL SENTENCE. THE STUDENT HAS DONE NO ORIGINAL THINKING OR WRITING. METHOD #6 HERE’S ANOTHER PARAPHRASE, AND THIS TIME THE STUDENT HAS REALLY USED HIS/HER OWN WORDS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE THE GRANDMOTHER SEEMS AT FIRST TO BE A THOROUGHLY UNPLEASANT CHARACTER. SHE IS EXTREMELY MANIPULATIVE, AND, RATHER THAN EXPRESSING HER DESIRES HONESTLY AS DESIRES, SHE TRANSFORMS THEM INTO A SERIES OF MORAL IMPERATIVES WHICH OTHERS IGNORE AT THE RISK OF BEING FOUND WANTING. HOWEVER, THE STUDENT FAILED TO INCLUDE A PARENTHETICAL REFERENCE TO GIANNONE’S BOOK (WHICH S/HE ALSO FAILED TO INCLUDE IN THE LIST OF “WORKS CITED). METHOD #7 SAME PARAPHRASE AS ABOVE, BUT WITH ONE DIFFERENCE THE GRANDMOTHER SEEMS AT FIRST TO BE A THOROUGHLY UNPLEASANT CHARACTER. SHE IS EXTREMELY MANIPULATIVE, AND, RATHER THAN EXPRESSING HER DESIRES HONESTLY AS DESIRES, SHE TRANSFORMS THEM INTO A SERIES OF MORAL IMPERATIVES WHICH OTHERS IGNORE AT THE RISK OF BEING FOUND WANTING. WORKS CITED GIANNONE, RICHARD. FLANNERY O’CONNOR AND THE MYSTERY OF LOVE. URBANA UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS PRESS, 1989. UNFORTUNATELY, THE LIST OF “WORKS CITED DOES NOT SAVE THE STUDENT FROM THE CHARGE OF PLAGIARISM, SINCE THERE IS NO PARENTHETICAL REFERENCE TO INDICATE THAT THE SECOND SENTENCE OF THE PASSAGE IN QUESTION IS A PARAPHRASE. AND, OF COURSE, ANY DISHONEST PARAPHRASE (AS IN VERSIONS 4 AND 5) WITHOUT BOTH A PARENTHETICAL REFERENCE AND AN ENTRY FOR THE SOURCE IN THE “WORKS CITED WOULD SIMILARLY CONSTITUTE A CASE OF PLAGIARISM. HOW TO CITE SOURCES METHOD #1 DIRECT QUOTATION HERE’S AN EXAMPLE OF AN APPROPRIATE USE OF DIRECT QUOTATION THE GRANDMOTHER SEEMS AT FIRST TO BE A THOROUGHLY UNPLEASANT CHARACTER. FOR EXAMPLE, RICHARD GIANNONE NOTES THAT “THROUGHOUT HER CONTRIVING, THE GRANDMOTHER COUCHES SELF-INTEREST IN A LANGUAGE OF MORALS THAT SHIFTS RESPONSIBILITY ONTO OTHERS (GIANNONE, 48). WORKS CITED GIANNONE, RICHARD. FLANNERY O’CONNOR AND THE MYSTERY OF LOVE. URBANA UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS PRESS, 1989. NOTE THAT THE STUDENT HAS INTRODUCED THE QUOTATION WITH A SHORT PHRASE OF HER OWN. YOU SHOULD ALWAYS WEAVE THE QUOTATION INTO THE STRUCTURE OF YOUR OWN SENTENCE. SIMPLY DROPPING IN QUOTATIONS WITHOUT ANY PREPARATION OR INTRODUCTION RESULTS IN A DISJOINTED AND CLUMSY PROSE STYLE, AS IN THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLE THE GRANDMOTHER SEEMS AT FIRST TO BE A THOROUGHLY UNPLEASANT CHARACTER. “THROUGHOUT HER CONTRIVING, THE GRANDMOTHER COUCHES SELF-INTEREST IN A LANGUAGE OF MORALS THAT SHIFTS RESPONSIBILITY ONTO OTHERS (GIANNONE, 48). WORKS CITED GIANNONE, RICHARD. FLANNERY O’CONNOR AND THE MYSTERY OF LOVE. URBANA UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS PRESS, 1989. THIS ISN’T PLAGIARISM, BUT IT’S NOT GOOD WRITING, EITHER. METHOD #2 PARAPHRASE HERE’S AN APPROPRIATE USE OF PARAPHRASE THE GRANDMOTHER SEEMS AT FIRST TO BE A THOROUGHLY UNPLEASANT CHARACTER. AS GIANNONE SUGGESTS, SHE IS EXTREMELY MANIPULATIVE, AND, RATHER THAN EXPRESSING HER DESIRES HONESTLY AS DESIRES, SHE TRANSFORMS THEM INTO A SERIES OF MORAL IMPERATIVES WHICH OTHERS IGNORE AT THE RISK OF BEING FOUND WANTING (GIANNONE, 48). WORKS CITED GIANNONE, RICHARD. FLANNERY O’CONNOR AND THE MYSTERY OF LOVE. URBANA UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS PRESS, 1989. NOTE THAT THE REFERENCE TO GIANNONE IN THE STUDENT’S OWN SENTENCE LETS THE READER KNOW, IN THE ABSENCE OF QUOTATION MARKS, EXACTLY WHICH IDEAS ARE GIANNONE’S AND WHICH ARE THE STUDENT’S.

Religion and Psychology-Freud argues that religious ideas are illusions, that is, fulfillments of infantile wishes. What do you think about him? If not, why not?

Order Specifications

The subject is Freud’s contention that religious beliefs are illusions or the realization of infantile desires. What do you think about him? If not, why not?

You must type your essay and double-space it. Use a regular font, such as 12 pt. Word count overages in papers will result in penalties.
You must type your essay and double-space it. Please use a regular font size, such as 12 pt. Word count overages in papers will result in penalties.
The course content page will publish the essay themes four weeks before the essay is due. You will be required to select an essay topic from a list that is specifically focused on the course material.
The definition of plagiarism that follows was taken from a document published by Professor Malcolm Woodland of the English Department at the University of Toronto. He provides an example from English literature, but it works for all academic work.
Plagiarism has no “grey areas,” as they say. Either you’ve done your best to be truthful, or you haven’t. You MUST specify exactly how this work has influenced your essay if, for any reason, you decide to consult some published material on the subject you are analyzing in your essay. The procedure consists of two easy steps: First, you must add in your list of “Works Cited” an entry for each book or journal you cite in your essay. While general knowledge does not require referencing (e.g., Canada is in the northern hemisphere), there is no such thing as a book or article that has influenced you in a “general way,” but to which you make no reference in your essay. It will be properly acknowledged in your essay through cited quotations and/or paraphrases if the work in question had an impact on it.
Such utilization of secondary sources shows strong research abilities and a desire to learn as much as you can about the subject, not a sign of weakness or a lack of creativity. It demonstrates your awareness that scholarship is a conversation among authors with a shared interest in those topics as well as your desire to engage in that conversation on an equal basis with more seasoned critics. On the other hand, failing to explain how you used such materials violates university academic policies, and you will be disciplined in accordance with such policies.
The misuse of already published content is a common theme in the following instances of plagiarism. It should go without saying that submitting work that unacknowledgedly uses unpublished writing from anybody other than yourself (such as a friend or someone you paid money to do the work) is also plagiarism.
Copying: Seven Techniques
A reviewer who wrote a book about Flannery O’Connor said the following. Flannery OConnor and the Mystery of Love is the title of a book written by Richard Giannone.
The grandma conceals self-interest throughout her scheme by speaking moral language that places the onus of duty on others.
Here are seven distinct ways a student could steal this passage from you:
Approach #1
The next two sentences were written by a student as part of an essay. There is no list of “Works Cited” at the end of the paper.
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. The grandma conceals self-interest throughout her scheme by speaking moral language that places the onus of duty on others.
Since the author’s words were taken verbatim from the source and the creator of that source was never credited, this is plagiarism.
Approach #2
This time, the student used the same two sentences as in technique #1, but included a reference to the second sentence’s author in his or her list of “Works Cited” (usually found at the very end of the paper):
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. The grandma conceals self-interest throughout her scheme by speaking moral language that places the onus of duty on others.
Works Citation
Richard Giannone. The Mysteries of Love and Flannery O’Connor. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1989.
Since the reader is unaware that the second sentence in the above passage was plagiarized, the student has nonetheless engaged in plagiarism. All quotations must be set off from your own text by being encased in quotation marks or, in the case of longer quotations, by being indented entirely. It is also imperative that the quotation be followed by a parenthetical citation to the original work. You should never list a work in your “Works Cited” if you have not specifically referred to it during the course of the essay. Doing so is equivalent to placing a 36-point boldface banner at the end of the essay that reads, “This essay contains plagiarized material.”
Technique #3
After using a statement from another source, the student referenced the source and page number in parentheses. The student also provided information about the source in the list of “Works Cited”:
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. The grandmother hides self-interest throughout her scheme by speaking moral language that places blame on others (Giannone, 48).
Works Citation
Richard Giannone. The Mysteries of Love and Flannery O’Connor. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1989.
Since the student neglected to enclose the sentence in quotation marks, the piece was nevertheless plagiarized. Thus, the student is misrepresenting these statements as being a paraphrasing of the original source.
Approach #4
This student has given what she believes to be a paraphrase of the passage and cited the author’s “Works Cited” entry in parentheses:
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. For instance, she reroutes responsibilities onto others by disguising personal desires in a language of ethics (Giannone, 48).
Works Citation
Richard Giannone. The Mysteries of Love and Flannery O’Connor. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1989.
This violates academic integrity since the paraphrase is not a true paraphrase; it adheres to the original sentence’s exact wording and does not reflect the student’s own perception of the critic in question. The student did not think creatively.
Approach #5
Once more, the student has given what is purported to be a paraphrase of the section and has included a parenthetical citation to the source stated in the “Works Cited”:
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. For instance, she disguises self-interest using a moral language, which places the blame for her deception on others (Giannone, 48).
Works Citation
Richard Giannone. The Mysteries of Love and Flannery O’Connor. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1989.
Since the student has only changed the sentence’s structure, this example is still not a legitimate paraphrase. The student’s writing and unique thought are both lacking.
Approach #6
This time the student has truly used his or her own words and sentence structure in another paraphrase, which is as follows:
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. She is incredibly manipulative and, instead of expressing her wishes honestly as desires, she turns them into a series of moral requirements that others must obediently disregard lest they be seen to be lacking.
However, the student neglected to cite Giannone’s book in the parentheses (and did not do so either in the list of “Works Cited”).
Approach #7
Similar to the sentence above, but with this difference:
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. She is incredibly manipulative and, instead of expressing her wishes honestly as desires, she turns them into a series of moral requirements that others must obediently disregard lest they be seen to be lacking.
Works Citation
Richard Giannone. The Mysteries of Love and Flannery O’Connor. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1989.
Unfortunately, the student is still accused of plagiarism because the list of “Works Cited” has no parenthetical citations indicating that the second sentence of the incriminated piece is a paraphrase. Of course, plagiarism also includes dishonest paraphrasing (such as in versions 4 and 5) that lacks a parenthetical citation and a “Works Cited” entry for the source.
Tips for Citing Sources
First Approach: Direct Quotation
Here is an illustration of how to utilize direct quotation correctly:
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. According to Richard Giannone’s observation, for instance, “Throughout her contriving, the grandmother couches self-interest in a language of morals that shifts responsibility onto others” (Giannone, 48).
Works Citation
Richard Giannone. The Mysteries of Love and Flannery O’Connor. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1989.
Keep in mind that the student added a brief word of her own to the beginning of the quotation. Always incorporate the quotation into the framework of your own statement. A disconnected and awkward literary style emerges from randomly inserting quotations without any planning or preface, as in the following example:
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. The grandmother “clads self-interest in a language of morals that shifts responsibility onto others throughout her contriving” (Giannone, 48).
Works Citation
Richard Giannone. The Mysteries of Love and Flannery O’Connor. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1989.
Although not plagiarism, this writing is also subpar.
Second method: Paraphrase
Here is a good example of using paraphrase:
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. She is extraordinarily manipulative, as Giannone says, and instead of expressing her wishes honestly as desires, she turns them into a set of moral requirements that others must obediently disregard lest they be found wanting (Giannone, 48).
Works Citation
Richard Giannone. The Mysteries of Love and Flannery O’Connor. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1989.
Note that the use of the term Giannone in the students’ own statement enables the reader to determine precisely which concepts belong to Giannone and which belong to the students even in the absence of quotation marks.

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The subject is Freud’s contention that religious beliefs are illusions, or the realization of infantile desires. What do you think about him? If not, why not?

You must type your essay and double-space it. use a regular font, such 12 pt. Word count overages in papers will result in penalties.
You must type your essay and double-space it. Please use a regular font size, such 12 pt. Word count overages in papers will result in penalties.
The course content page will publish the essay themes four weeks before the essay is due. You will be required to select an essay topic from a list that is specifically focused on the course material.
The definition of plagiarism that follows was taken from a document published by Professor Malcolm Woodland of the English Department at the University of Toronto. He provides an example from English literature, but it works for all academic work.
Plagiarism has no “grey areas,” as they say. Either you’ve done your best to be truthful, or you haven’t. You MUST specify exactly how this work has influenced your essay if, for any reason, you decide to consult some published material on the subject you are analyzing in your essay. The procedure consists of two easy steps: First, you must add in your list of “Works Cited” an entry for each book or journal you cite in your essay. While general knowledge does not require referencing (e.g., Canada is in the northern hemisphere), there is no such thing as a book or article that has influenced you in a “general way,” but to which you make no reference in your essay. It will be properly acknowledged in your essay through cited quotations and/or paraphrases if the work in question had an impact on it.
Such utilization of secondary sources shows strong research abilities and a desire to learn as much as you can about the subject, not a sign of weakness or a lack of creativity. It demonstrates your awareness that scholarship is a conversation among authors with a shared interest in those topics as well as your desire to engage in that conversation on an equal basis with more seasoned critics. On the other hand, failing to explain how you used such materials violates university academic policies, and you will be disciplined in accordance with such policies.
The misuse of already published content is a common theme in the following instances of plagiarism. It should go without saying that submitting work that unacknowledgedly uses unpublished writing from anybody other than yourself (such as a friend or someone you paid money to do the work) is also plagiarism.
Copying: Seven Techniques
A reviewer who wrote a book about Flannery O’Connor said the following. Flannery OConnor and the Mystery of Love is the title of a book written by Richard Giannone.
The grandma conceals self-interest throughout her scheme by speaking moral language that places the onus of duty on others.
Here are seven distinct ways a student could steal this passage from you:
Approach #1
The next two sentences were written by a student as part of an essay. There is no list of “Works Cited” at the end of the paper.
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. The grandma conceals self-interest throughout her scheme by speaking moral language that places the onus of duty on others.
Since the author’s words were taken verbatim from the source and the creator of that source was never credited, this is plagiarism.
Approach #2
This time, the student used the same two sentences as in technique #1, but included a reference to the second sentence’s author in his or her list of “Works Cited” (usually found at the very end of the paper):
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. The grandma conceals self-interest throughout her scheme by speaking moral language that places the onus of duty on others.
Works Citation
Richard Giannone. The Mysteries of Love and Flannery O’Connor. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1989.
Since the reader is unaware that the second sentence in the above passage was plagiarized, the student has nonetheless engaged in plagiarism. All quotations must be set off from your own text by being encased in quotation marks or, in the case of longer quotations, by being indented entirely. It is also imperative that the quotation be followed by a parenthetical citation to the original work. You should never list a work in your “Works Cited” if you have not specifically referred to it during the course of the essay. Doing so is equivalent to placing a 36-point boldface banner at the end of the essay that reads, “This essay contains plagiarized material.”
Technique #3
After using a statement from another source, the student referenced the source and page number in parentheses. The student also provided information about the source in the list of “Works Cited”:
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. The grandmother hides self-interest throughout her scheme by speaking moral language that places blame on others (Giannone, 48).
Works Citation
Richard Giannone. The Mysteries of Love and Flannery O’Connor. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1989.
Since the student neglected to enclose the sentence in quotation marks, the piece was nevertheless plagiarized. Thus, the student is misrepresenting these statements as being a paraphrasing of the original source.
Approach #4
This student has given what she believes to be a paraphrase of the passage and cited the author’s “Works Cited” entry in parentheses:
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. For instance, she reroutes responsibilities onto others by disguising personal desires in a language of ethics (Giannone, 48).
Works Citation
Richard Giannone. The Mysteries of Love and Flannery O’Connor. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1989.
This violates academic integrity since the paraphrase is not a true paraphrase; it adheres to the original sentence’s exact wording and does not reflect the student’s own perception of the critic in question. The student did not think creatively.
Approach #5
Once more, the student has given what is purported to be a paraphrase of the section and has included a parenthetical citation to the source stated in the “Works Cited”:
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. For instance, she disguises self-interest using a moral language, which places the blame for her deception on others (Giannone, 48).
Works Citation
Richard Giannone. The Mysteries of Love and Flannery O’Connor. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1989.
Since the student has only changed the sentence’s structure, this example is still not a legitimate paraphrase. The student’s writing and unique thought are both lacking.
Approach #6
This time the student has truly used his or her own words and sentence structure in another paraphrase, which is as follows:
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. She is incredibly manipulative and, instead of expressing her wishes honestly as desires, she turns them into a series of moral requirements that others must obediently disregard lest they be seen to be lacking.
However, the student neglected to cite Giannone’s book in the parentheses (and did not do so either in the list of “Works Cited”).
Approach #7
Similar to the sentence above, but with this difference:
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. She is incredibly manipulative and, instead of expressing her wishes honestly as desires, she turns them into a series of moral requirements that others must obediently disregard lest they be seen to be lacking.
Works Citation
Richard Giannone. The Mysteries of Love and Flannery O’Connor. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1989.
Unfortunately, the student is still accused of plagiarism because the list of “Works Cited” has no parenthetical citations indicating that the second sentence of the incriminated piece is a paraphrase. Of course, plagiarism also includes dishonest paraphrasing (such as in versions 4 and 5) that lacks a parenthetical citation and a “Works Cited” entry for the source.
Tips for Citing Sources
First Approach: Direct Quotation
Here is an illustration of how to utilize direct quotation correctly:
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. According to Richard Giannone’s observation, for instance, “Throughout her contriving, the grandmother couches self-interest in a language of morals that shifts responsibility onto others” (Giannone, 48).
Works Citation
Richard Giannone. The Mysteries of Love and Flannery O’Connor. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1989.
Keep in mind that the student added a brief word of her own to the beginning of the quotation. Always incorporate the quotation into the framework of your own statement. A disconnected and awkward literary style emerges from randomly inserting quotations without any planning or preface, as in the following example:
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. The grandmother “clads self-interest in a language of morals that shifts responsibility onto others throughout her contriving” (Giannone, 48).
Works Citation
Richard Giannone. The Mysteries of Love and Flannery O’Connor. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1989.
Although not plagiarism, this writing is also subpar.
Second method: Paraphrase
Here is a good example of using paraphrase:
At first, the grandma comes across as a wholly awful person. She is extraordinarily manipulative, as Giannone says, and instead of expressing her wishes honestly as desires, she turns them into a set of moral requirements that others must obediently disregard lest they be found wanting (Giannone, 48).
Works Citation
Richard Giannone. The Mysteries of Love and Flannery O’Connor. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1989.
Note that the use of the term Giannone in the students’ own statement enables the reader to determine precisely which concepts belong to Giannone and which belong to the students even in the absence of quotation marks.

 

 

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