Should the physician allow Mike to continue making decisions that seem to him to be irrational and harmful to James or would that mean a disrespect of a patient’s autonomy?

In addition to the topic study materials, use the chart you completed and questions you answered in the Topic 3 about “Case Study: Healing and Autonomy” as the basis for your responses in this assignment.

Answer the following questions about a patient’s spiritual needs in light of the Christian worldview.

  1. In 200-250 words, respond to the following: Should the physician allow Mike to continue making decisions that seem to him to be irrational and harmful to James, or would that mean a disrespect of a patient’s autonomy? Explain your rationale.
  2. In 400-500 words, respond to the following: How ought the Christian think about sickness and health? How should a Christian think about medical intervention? What should Mike as a Christian do? How should he reason about trusting God and treating James in relation to what is truly honoring the principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence in James’s care?
  3. In 200-250 words, respond to the following: How would a spiritual needs assessment help the physician assist Mike determine appropriate interventions for James and for his family or others involved in his care?

Remember to support your responses with the topic study materials.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

This benchmark assignment assesses the following competencies:

BS Nursing (RN to BSN)

5.2: Assess for the spiritual needs and provide appropriate interventions for individuals, families, and groups.

Applying the Four Principles: Case Study

Part 1: Chart (60 points)

Based on the “Healing and Autonomy” case study, fill out all the relevant boxes below. Provide the information by means of bullet points or a well-structured paragraph in the box. Gather as much data as possible.

Medical IndicationsBeneficence and Nonmaleficence Patient PreferencesAutonomy
In healthcare provision, medical indication refers to the clinical information which is needed to help in the diagnosis of the patient. A medical indication is also helping in revealing the severity of the health problem experienced by the patient and this is helping in determining the type of treatment that should be provided to the patient. Based on Beneficence, it is necessary to act with the best intention while caring for the patient. With regard to non-maleficence, it is a requirement for the healthcare providers to prevent harm from occurring to the patients. Based on the case study, it is clear that the action of James’ parents is as per the interest of the patient even though the medical indication shows that his condition might be worse in case he is not treated. It is also evident that these parents had no intention of harming their son and made a decision of reporting back to ensure that his condition is improved. Patient preference is the expression of patient choice. The main goal of autonomy is to focus on the right of an individual towards making a personal choice. Based on the case study, it is evident that the patient is underage and it is impossible to exercise his autonomy. Despite the above facts, it was important for James’ parents to consult with him prior to making a decision on whether is at ease with their choice. The clinician should also have helped in the situation to communicate with the parents concerning James’ right of preferences in terms of his autonomy.
Quality of LifeBeneficence, Nonmaleficence, Autonomy Contextual FeaturesJustice and Fairness
It is the responsibility of the healthcare providers to ensure that patients are provided with important medical features of life prior to and after treatment. According to the case study, the condition of the patient appeared to be worse. However, after the dialysis process, there was a positive adjustment in terms of healthcare outcome. The condition can also be made better through kidney transplant which has been proposed to ensure that he regain his condition, James’ father is having a thought that his son i.e. brother to James should be allowed to give his kidney or have in faith with regard to the recovery of the patient. According to the first incidence, it is important for these parents to have a consultation with the patient so that his opinion can be considered in these suggestions. Depending on the faith seems to be making the situation to be worse, therefore, it is necessary to act immediately based on the interest of the patient and allow James to get a kidney transplant from the brother as suggested by his father. Contextual features are important in determining the legal, familial, and the social setting which is greatly influencing the individuals’ decision making in terms of medication. According to the case study, it is clear that it is the faith of James’ parent that made them believe that their son will be healed. This faith is also making them believe that James will heal for the second time even though they are likely to consider kidney transplant option. Usually, justice and fairness are focusing on the quality and according to this case study, there is a conflict of interest especially when the ideal tissue which matches with that of the patient was identified from James’ brother. Therefore, James’ parents were prepared to support the idea of a kidney transplant but they are not ready to allow James’ brother to be involved in the donation.

NAME: , DATE: JULY 11 2019

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Part 2: Evaluation

Answer each of the following questions about how principlism would be applied:

1. In 200-250 words answer the following: According to the Christian worldview, which of the four principles is most pressing in this case? Explain why. (45 points)

Based on the view of Christians, it is evident that the most pressing issue is related to beneficence. This is basically based on the fact that a person or healthcare provider is required to act with the best intention while caring for the patient. Based on the case study, James parents appear to be acting with the best intention in their mind i.e. they are willing to see their son fully recover from the illness. While looking at their actions, it is clear that they are acting as per the interest of the patient even though the medical indication shows that his condition might be worse in case he is not treated. These parents are having faith that their son will be healed in the process by engaging in prayers.According to their actions, they want the best for their son and this is why they are not prepared to allow their son to have kidney transplant especially the one which is donated by his own brother. It is clear that they are worried about the possible health outcome of James’ brother after the donation process; therefore they choose to engage in intensive prayers. They believe in their faith more the treatment and it is therefore not possible to blame them as the main cause of the worsening situation of their son’s health since they are acting in good faith since they still brought him back to the facility to have his condition improved.

2. In 200-250 words answer the following: According to the Christian worldview, how might a Christian rank the priority of the four principles? Explain why. (45 points)

Based on the reactions shown by James’ parents, it is possible to group the Christian worldview in terms of ranking the four principles. The first rank is the beneficence and it should be followed by non-maleficence. The rest in the ranking should be justice and fairness and autonomy in the third and fourth position respectively.This is basically due to the fact that it is important for Christians to show some kind of love to their children just like it was evident by the actions shown by James’ parents. It was the love that James’ parents had to their children that they kept on having faith that James will recover through prayers. It was also loved that made them come to the facility when James’ condition became worse. Therefore, it is the responsibility of parents to act to the best interest of their children as per the principle of autonomy.It is also the role of the parents to ensure that they stick by the non-maleficence principles by preventing and avoiding causing harm to their children just like James’ case when his parents took him to the facility when his condition got worse. It is upon Christians to ensure that they observe principles of justice and fairness in their daily lives. Autonomy principles should be observed to allow each person to make their own decisions regarding some crucial aspects especially in relation to healthcare services.


Beever, J., & Brightman, A. O. (2016). Reflexive principlism as an effective approach for developing ethical reasoning in engineering. Science and engineering ethics, 22 (1), 275-291. Ho, A., Spencer, M., & McGuire, M. (2015). When Frail Individuals or Their Families Request Nonindicated Interventions: Usefulness of the Four‐Box Ethical Approach. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 63 (8), 1674-1678. Ryan, R. M., & Lynch, M. F. (2011). Motivation and autonomy in counseling, psychotherapy, and behavior change: A look at the theory and practice 1ψ7.”. The Counseling Psychologist, 39 (2), 193-260. Tegin, M., & Zhu, C. (2015). Beneficence and nonmaleficence in treating neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Developmental Neuroscience, 37 (4-5), 305-310.

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