Study Guide for Anthropology 101

Need help with my Science question – I’m studying for my class.

ALL THE ANSWERS ARE IN THE READING LINKS BELOW

  1. “What is Anthropology?” (American Anthropological Association 2020). Link: http://www.americananthro.org/AdvanceYourCareer/Content.aspx?ItemNumber=2150 (Links to an external site.)
  2. “Principles of Professional Responsibility” (American Anthropological Association 2020). Link: https://www.americananthro.org/LearnAndTeach/Content.aspx?ItemNumber=22869 (Links to an external site.)
  3. Chapter 1: “Introduction to Biological Anthropology?” in Explorations (Nelson 2019) * Link: https://pressbooks-dev.oer.hawaii.edu/explorationsbioanth/chapter/__unknown__-2/ (Links to an external site.)
  4. Chapter 2: “Evolution” in Explorations (Marks 2019)* Link: https://pressbooks-dev.oer.hawaii.edu/explorationsbioanth/chapter/__unknown__/ (Links to an external site.)
  5. Chapter 7 “Understanding the Fossil Context” in Explorations (King 2019)* Link: https://pressbooks-dev.oer.hawaii.edu/explorationsbioanth/chapter/__unknown__-7/

TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE

  1. What is “anthropology” and what are its four fields? Define each field and give an example of a career in each.
    (Location of the answer: Ch. 1 of Explorations free online textbook, “What is Anthropology?” on American Anthropological Association website, and/or lecture).
    Directions: Use and define a min. of 3 key terms from Ch. 1 in your answer and/or this web page: http://thisisanthropology.com/about-anthropology (Links to an external site.) Please include the following key terms in your answer for it to be correct: Anthropology, Cultural Anthropology, Linguistic Anthropology, Archaeology, Physical (or Biological) Anthropology.
  1. How do physical anthropologists know what they know? What are a few steps in the scientific method?
    (Location of the answer: Ch. 1 of Explorations free online textbook, website link, lecture, and/or lecture).
    Use and define a min. of 3 key terms from Ch. 1 “What is Anthropology? in your answer : scientific method, data, hypothesis, empirical, theory, anatomical, arboreal, terrestrial, and morphology. Example topic sentence: “Like all scientists, physical anthropologists know what they know by using the scientific method….”
  2. What is an example of a relative dating method and how was it used to date something?
    (Location of the answer: Chapter 7, lecture, and/or lecture).
    Directions: Use and define a min. of 3 key terms from Ch. 7: fossils and Steno’s Law of Superposition, Stratigraphic correlation, biostratigraphic (faunal) dating, Florine dating, cultural dating (See “Concept Check!” p. 243).
  3. What is an example of an absolute (chronometric) dating method and how it was used to date something?
    (Location of the answer: Chapter 7, lecture, and/or lecture).
    Directions: Use and define a min. of 3 key terms from Ch. 7: Fossils, radiocarbon dating (aka “carbon-14” or C14 dating), half-life, isotopes, igneous, radiopotassiom dating, fission-track dating, amino acid dating, polarized light, racemization, paleomagnetic, electron spin resonance dating, thermoluminesence dating, and Foraminifera (See “Concept Check!” p. 243).
  1. What is the first ethical practice that guides anthropologists in their research and writings? What is informed consent?
    (“Principles of Professional Responsibility” in American Anthropological Association 2020 and/or lecture). Directions: Use and define a min. of 3 key terms from the article online “principles of Professional Responsibility.” Key Terms: Anthropology, do no harm, biological anthropology, informed consent, institutional review boards, and anonymity.
  1. What is the scientific method? What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory? Empirical data consists of what kinds of evidence?
  • Key Terms: Scientific method, data, datum, hypothesis, empirical evidence or data, testable, scholarly peer review, independent variable, sample, bias, theory, and law.

An easy way to begin your short-essay answer is to re-phrase the question as a statement. Example topic or first sentence: “The scientific method is………”

 The answer to this question can be found in Ch. 1 of the free online textbook Explorations and its key term definitions on pages 23-24 (Nelson 2019). Also listen/and or review my lecture “What is Anthropology?” (PDF files and recorded lectures on Canvas).

  1. What is “anthropology” and what are its four subdisciplines? Define each subdiscipline in a separate sentence.
  • Key Terms: Anthropology, Cultural Anthropology, Linguistic Anthropology (or “Linguistics”), Archaeology, and Biological Anthropology.

 The answer to this question can be found in Ch. 1 in Explorations and key term definitions on pages 23-24 and in my lecture “What is Anthropology?” (Nelson 2019). and on the Quiz #1 Reading Assignment PDF file on Canvas)

  1. Scientists determine the dates of the remains of once living things in various ways. Answer the following:
    • Describe one kind of a relative dating method and give an example of how it can be used (or was used) to date a certain kind of material.
    • Describe one kind of an absolute (chronometric) dating method and give an example of how it can be used (or was used) to date a certain kind of material.
  • Key terms: Radiocarbon dating (aka “carbon-14 dating”), biostratiographic (faunal) dating, cultural dating, thermoluminescence dating, fission-track dating, Potassium-Argon (aka “Radiopotassium” dating (40K-40Ar), Argon-Argon dating (40Ar-39Ar), Uranium-238 to Lead-206 dating, and Dendrochronology, sedimentary rock, igneous rock, strata, Steno’s Law of Superposition, Steno’s Law of Association, index fossil, taphonomy.

 The answer to this question can be found in Ch. 7 “Understanding the Fossil Context” in Explorations (link on Canvas); my lectures (recorded videos and slides’ links on Canvas); and the links to resources below may also be helpful https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1486-absolute-dating (Links to an external site.) andhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mNp68vvFmDY (Links to an external site.)andhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vLNA0qr8l3Q (Links to an external site.)

  1. The beginning of our planet Earth, according to geological evidence, was about 4.6 ____________. (Ka, Ma, or Ga?)
  1. The three eras of geologic time based on the earliest fossil evidence of life forms are

(Hint: (1) first life on land era, (2) giant reptiles era, and (3) mammals/current era)

  1. The last current epoch of geologic time that began around 11.6 Ka is _________
  1. Which geologic epoch occurred just before the Holocene (the current epoch)?
  1. The genetic makeup of an organism is its _____________ (Hint: Genotype or Phenotype?)
  2. The physical expression of an organism’s genotype influenced by the environment is its ____________ (Hint: Genotype or Phenotype?)
  3. Which subdiscipline of anthropology would include primatology, forensic anthropology, and the study of human evolution?
  1. Which subdiscpline of anthropology is the study of past cultures based on the material remains that people left behind?
  1. What are anthropology’s three ethical guidelines for research that involves human subjects?
  1. The study of humanity from its earliest origins millions of years ago to its present worldwide diversity is the definition of
  1. Jane Goodall, DBE, a British primatologist, practices which subdiscipline of anthropology? (Cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics or biological anthropology?)
  1. The person known as the “Father of Anthropology” who scientifically disproved racist theories of eugenics and laid the foundation of scientific anthropology, and practiced all four branches of anthropology is
  1. The study of human bones (biological anthropology) combined with forensic science to assist in the detection of a crime is called
  1. A testable statement that potentially explains specific phenomena observed in the natural world, or in other words, a prediction of the answer for a research question is called
  1. An upper canine that is not projecting, and it is part of a nonhoning chewing mechanism (meaning that it is not sharpened against the lower third premolar), is called
  1. The specific area of the natural environment in which an organism lives is its
  2. A group of related organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile, viable offspring, or, in other words, a group of organisms that are reproductively isolated from other groups due to habitat isolation, behavioral isolation, or reduced hybrid viability or fertility is called a (type, family, order, species or genus?)
  1. The paintings of now extinct European lions (Panthera leo spelaea) in Chauvet Cave were painted about 32Ka, which means that they were painted _______________ years ago. (Hint: 32 years ago, 32 thousand years ago, 32 million years ago, or 32 billion years ago?)
  1. The oldest human bones discovered in North America are those of Arlington Man, found on Santa Rosa Island, which date to about 13,000 Ka (Hint: ________ years ago).
  1. Christopher Columbus discovered the island of Hispaniola in the Americas in the year (B.C.E. or C.E.?) 1492 (Hint: B.C.E = B.C. and C.E. = A.D. )
  1. Evolutionary synthesis can best be described as Darwin’s theory of ________ combined with genetics.
  1. The English scientist who independently co-discovered the theory of evolution by natural selection at the same time as Charles Darwin was:
  1. Changes in physical structure, function, or behavior that allow an organism or species to survive and reproduce in a given environment are called ___________
  1. The “Father of Genetics” who discovered the mechanism of inheritance is
  1. The diversification of an ancestral group of organisms into new forms that are adapted to specific environment niches is called _______________(Hint: Darwin noticed that the different species of Galapagos finches experienced this from a single ancestral finch species who lived in Ecuador.)
  1. The study of fossils is called ____________ (Hint: paleontology, geology, fossiology, archaeology, or biological archaeology?)
  1. The current and correct scientific word for humans and humanlike ancestors who habitually walked on two feet is ___________ (Hint: Hominid or hominin?)
  1. The four forces of evolution are:
  1. “C-3” plants live in temperate regions and include ….
  2. The belief that one’s own culture is better than yothers, which was used to justify the subjugation of non-European societies until the end of the 20th Century, is called (Nelson 2019, 5).
  1. The physical appearance of an organism due to its genotype and environmental factors is _______________ (Marks 2019, 35).
  1. _____________ can be defined as individuals with preferential characteristics in a particular environment will survive and reproduce at a higher rate in comparison to individuals that do not possess these traits describes. (Kirwin’s “Evolution” lecture)
  1. The synthetic theory of evolution combines Darwin and Wallace’s theory of “natural selection” with Mendel’s theory of ____________. (Kirwin’s “Evolution” lecture)
  1. The principle that the lower the stratum or layer (of rock),
    the older its age; the oldest layers are at the bottom, and the youngest are at the top is known as (Steno’s Law of Superposition or Steno’s Law of Association?)
  1. The study of the Earth, especially with regard to is composition, activity, and history is (Hint: Paleontology, geology, anthropology, paleoanthropology, or geography?)
  1. The acronym DNA stands for _____________
  1. A gene is a …
  1. Atoms of a given element (like carbon or potassium) that have different numbers of neutrons are called __________, which is the basis of radioisotopic dating methods like radiocarbon dating (aka “carbon-14 dating”).

     See page 251 of Explorations (King 2019, 251) or my lecture. Elements are classified based on the number of protons (which is always the same for each different element) but their neutrons may vary and decay at a regular rate over time.

  1. The number one principle of professional responsibility for anthropologists researching humans is (American Anthropological Association 2020)*
  1. Empirical data consists of …
  1. 41. A relative dating method that uses the associations of fossils in strata to determine each layer’s approximate age (Steno’s Law of Association) is called
  1. radiocarbon dating (14Carbon) b. biostrarigraphic (faunal) dating.
  2. Tinder dating. d. cultural dating.
  1. An absolute (radiometric) dating method that can used to date organic material that is younger than 50,000 years (and that died before 1950) is
  1. Radiopotassium dating (40K-40Ar)
  2. Radiocarbon (“Carbon-14”) dating (14C)
  3. Argon-Argon dating (40Ar-39Ar)
  4. Thermoluminescence dating
  1. According to the recent re-dating of earliest human remains discovered at Jebel Irhoud in Morocco, how long ago did the earliest anatomically modern humans live? (Lecture only, you can find it on the Internet with a key word search)
  1. Which absolute dating method was used to date the burnt flint blades, which were found in context with the earliest human remains found at Jebel Irhoud, Morocco?
  1. Radiopotassium dating (40K-40Ar)
  2. Radiocarbon dating (14C)
  3. Argon-Argon dating (40Ar-39Ar)
  4. Thermoluminescence dating
  1. Thermoluminescence dating can be used to date materials like ___________, which are older than 50,000 years or when organic material is not available.
  1. Radiocarbon (aka “carbon-14”) dating can be used to date materials like _____________, that are less than 50,000 years old to C.E. 1950.
  1. Radiopotassium and Argon-Argon dating can be used to date materials like ___________________, which are older than 200,000 years old.
  1. A supercontinent that existed during the Paleozoic era about 200 Ma is __________
  1. ____________________ is the current evolutionary idea that species are stable through time and are formed very rapidly relative to their duration. The opposite and disproved idea about evolution was believed by Charles Darwin and is called “gradualism.”
  1. _________________ was Darwin’s term for what we now call “evolution,” in which living organisms evolve to look different from their ancestors.

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