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Attachment theory was proposed by John Bowlby. The theories of Freud also had an impact on his understanding of attachment. The first is that young children’s interactions with their moms have a significant influence on their subsequent development. The concept that the infant uses its primary caregiver as a secure base was created by Bowlby. According to this theory, an infant or toddler feels more secure when a dependable caregiver is around, allowing them to explore their surroundings. In four steps, Bowlby outlined his attachment hypothesis. Preattachment is the first stage, which lasts from birth to six weeks. The baby cries throughout this stage, alerting the caregiver to the baby’s needs, and the caregiver comforts the baby. The attachment-in-the-making period follows, lasting from six weeks to six to eight months. Infants respond more to familiar faces during this stage. The following stage lasts from six to eight months to one and a half years and is known as clear-cut attachment. They might exhibit symptoms of separation anxiety at this point if their mother is taken away from them. Reciprocal partnerships, which endure for up to two years, are the final phase. By this time, the youngster is less anxious about being separated from the caregiver and is actively participating in their development.

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Infants and kids have less satisfying attachments when there is an insecure attachment. Children who are insecurely attached might be classified as either insecure/resistant (ambivalent), insecure avoidant, or disorganized/disoriented. John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth started working together. Her studies on children who were classified as insecure/resistant (ambivalent) revealed that babies in this group frequently clung to their mothers and exhibited clinginess. These kids frequently become quite distressed if the mother leaves the room. When their mother returns, they might rush to her, acting as though they want to be scooped up, but they’ll soon strive to escape her embrace. These kids fall into the category of insecure avoidants and frequently avoid their mothers. When they get together, they won’t say hello to her, and they won’t acknowledge her when she enters the room. Infants who have been diagnosed as disorganized or disoriented appear to want to approach their mother but also fear her and have a tendency to recede from her.

Bonding between a caregiver and child might be hampered by insecure attachment. As you can see from the descriptions of the various types of insecure attachment given above, when a kid does not have a strong emotional connection to their caregiver, it can leave them feeling confused and insecure as well as emotionally distant from them.

(2014) Siegler, R., J. DeLoache, N. Eisenberg, and J. Saffran. Fourth edition of “How Children Develop” Worth, New York, NY.



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