Using examples from your own experience or from music-related media, explain where these texts locate listeners’ or musicians’ agency—and/or where they deny such agency.

I don’t know how to handle this Spanish question and need guidance.

ADDED TO QUESTION: What, according to these texts/writers, is people’s agency in their everyday listening or in their musical performances? Where do these authors find “intentional and undetermined human action” or “the creativity and aesthetic contribution of artists and audiences and their attempt to make meaning and act upon society and history”? Do these texts/writers allow for agency at all?

Recommendations: Be sure to use the space you have efficiently. Choosing just one text may be enough if you have strong arguments in your discussion of its up- and downsides. Two texts/writers may work well for a comparison.

  • While, of course, short summaries of selected texts’/writers’ main arguments should be included in your text, be sure to focus on the application of their ideas to your examples, and focus on your critical evaluation of these ideas.
  • Be sure to isolate the key arguments of the texts you focus on. Don’t feel like you have to explain a text’s/writer’s minor lines of thought. Instead, take a reading’s key point and engage with it through evidence as well as comparison.

FONT: Times New Roman (or similar), font size 12, and keep your papers double-spaced.


Rojek, C.(2011). Pop Music, Pop Culture. Cambridge: Polity.

“Subculture: the meaning of style” by Dick Hebdige.

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