What factors helped lead to severe immigration restrictions being enacted in the 1920s?

Formal Essay – Immigration and Nativism
QUESTION: Based on the information presented in the documents, analyze the arguments made in favor and opposed to immigration in the period from the late 1800s to the 1920s. Why were there so few immigration restrictions in place from the late 1800s to 1920? What factors helped lead to severe immigration restrictions being enacted in the 1920s? Was the decision of the U.S. government to severely restrict immigration justified at the time? Why or why not?
Textbook (OpenStax) – Ch. 9.4 (p. 264-266), Ch. 11.4 (p. 318-320), Ch. 14.2 (p. 405-406), Ch. 17.5 (p. 502-504), Ch. 19.2 (p. 553-555), Ch. 23.5 (p. 687-689), Ch. 24.2 (p. 702-706), Ch. 29.2 (p. 866-867)
Lecture notes on Immigration.
Assigned primary source documents in the back of the textbook and online (you must use specific examples from at least four of the six):
Document 5 (p. 17-20) – R.G. Ingersoll, Should the Chinese Be Excluded (1893)
Document 27 (p. 78-79) – U.S. Department of Labor, The Need for Immigration Restriction (1923)
Document 26 (p. 76-77) – Hiram W. Evans, The Klan’s Fight for Americanism (1926)
Online Document – Robert H. Clancy, “An Un-American Bill” Speech (1924) – http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5079
Online Document – U.S. Government, Immigration Act of 1924 Quota List – http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5078
Online Document – Ellison Durant Smith, “Shut the Door” Speech (1924) – http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5080

I. Format (30 points)
1) Papers should be typed. Papers should be no less than 2 full pages long and should be double-spaced. There is no maximum page limit. Students should use 12 pt font and 1-inch margins.
2) A header is required and should include the following information: student’s name, date, class (HIST 202), and instructor’s name (Jones). There should be only one or two spaces at most between the header and the beginning of the paper.
3) Students may include a title for their papers. If they choose to include this, it should be no more than one space underneath the header in the center of the paper. The body of the paper should begin no more than one space underneath the title. Titles are optional.
4) Papers should have an introduction, body, and conclusion. The body of the paper should be divided up into separate paragraphs, one for each main topic or point made. The first sentence of each paragraph should be indented.
5) Papers should have a clear and specific thesis statement that does not just restate the main question being asked. Thesis statements can be more than one sentence long, but should also be concise. The thesis statement needs to be in the introduction of the essay.
6) Sources should be cited within the text of the essay using MLA format when appropriate. This means that students should use parenthetical documentation when directly quoting something or when paraphrasing another author’s idea or argument. Sentences that convey a student’s own thoughts or arguments, or state factual information, do not need to be cited. Citations should include the author’s last name and the page number.
7) A Works Cited page is not required. You should only use the sources assigned in the instructions. No other outside sources are allowed.
II. Spelling/Grammar and Style (20 points)
Papers should have minimal spelling and grammatical errors. Please use spell check while writing your paper. Spell check does not catch every misspelled word, so please also proofread your papers carefully for any spelling errors. Sentence fragments, incomplete sentences, run-on sentences, misuse of words, and inappropriate use of punctuation are all considered serious grammatical errors and will negatively affect your grade. Sentences and paragraphs should be coherent, clear, and well organized. If you feel you need assistance with spelling, grammar, or style, please either turn in a rough publish to me or visit the Writing Center.
III. Content (50 points)
The main focus of the paper should be to analyze the arguments in favor and opposed to immigration. The thesis should address whether the government’s immigration restrictions were justified and why or why not.
In addition to the background information from the lectures and textbook, students must specifically use examples from at least four of the six assigned primary source documents to back up their arguments.
Papers should discuss the specific arguments and points made by each author in the primary sources. Students should also discuss each author’s point of view (biases, background, reasons why they might have held the viewpoint they did).
Students should demonstrate in their paper that they have completed the required textbook readings by incorporating relevant background information into their papers. Papers should not just be a summary of the primary source documents.

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