What sampling method or plan was used by the authors in this study?. Simple random samplingSystematic samplingConvenience sampling. Network samplingNone of the above

 

What sampling method or plan was used by the authors in this study?
. Simple random sampling
Systematic sampling
Convenience sampling
. Network sampling
None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

Impact of Instructors™ Caring on Students™ Perceptions of Their Own Caring Behaviors

(Labrague, McEnroe-Petitte, Papathanasiou, Edet, & Arulappan, 2015)
Instructions: A major skill that is learned in this course is how to critically read and critique nursing research articles. The purpose for critiquing an article is to critically evaluate the research process followed by the author(s) of the assigned article. This is an information-intensive, time-intensive process that is not learned overnight. To demonstrate your skill at critiquing an article, you will complete this open-book multiple choice assignment.
Here™s how you should approach completing this week™s assignment to finish critiquing an article:
1. First, do your assigned reading in Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015) and complete the reading worksheets early in the week. This will introduce you to the critique skills you will need for the week.
2. Skim the entire instructor assigned research article that has been posted on Blackboard for you so that you will have an idea of what it is about. Lightly cross out the abstract for the article (you won™t be using it). Then, for this week, re-read carefully the methods, results, discussion, implications, and conclusions sections of the article again.
3. Print this document and find the best answer to each question below based on your Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015) assigned reading for the week and what you have read in the instructor assigned research article.
4. Some of the questions in the critique assignment below will seem unfamiliar to you. Look up key terms from the question in your textbook. Some examples of these terms might be: power analysis, inter-rater reliability, and generalization. You can also look in Chapter 12 for an example of a critical appraisal (or critique) of a quantitative research article.
5. Once you have completed this assignment œon paper, go into blackboard and enter your answers by the assignment due date and time listed in the syllabus. Ignore any wording from Blackboard that indicates that œthis is a test and carefully enter your answers from this document.
6. You will have two access attempts to record your answers. This is given to you so that if you encounter technical difficulties on your first attempt, or you would like a second attempt to try to improve your grade, you may do so. You will not be able to see the questions that you missed when you submit your attempt. Blackboard will record the highest grade from the two submissions.
If you have questions about this assignment, you can post them to your group discussion board for help. Please do not post the exact question from the assignment below and ask the group for the answer as this would constitute academic dishonesty.

Questions 1 “ 9: Sample. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters: 9 & 12)
1. What sampling method or plan was used by the authors in this study?
a. Simple random sampling
b. Systematic sampling
c. Convenience sampling
d. Network sampling
e. None of the above

2. According to Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), what are the potential biases of this sampling method?
a. This is a strong probability sampling method with very little potential for bias
b. This method is used when an ordered list of all members of the population are available, and provides a random but not equal chance for inclusion in the study.
c. This method provides little opportunity to control for bias because subjects are included in the study merely because they happen to be in the right place at the right time.
d. This method is specific to the individuals who were recruited and the information gained cannot be generalized to others who don™t share these types of experiences.
e. None of the above biases best describe the sampling method chosen by the author.

3. What was the final sample size reported by the authors for this study?
a. 236 students
b. 527 students
c. 540 students
d. 586 students

4. Was a power analysis conducted? If so, which statement best describes the results of the power analysis?
a. The authors mention that a power analysis was conducted, and state that the low power level of 0.55 for the Pearson™s product-moment correlation coefficient is a limitation of the study.
b. The authors mention that a power analysis was conducted, and 47 subjects were
determined to be needed for the study.
c. The authors do not report that a power analysis was conducted.

5. Which of these statements would be considered to be inclusion criterion for the sample in the research article? (Select all that apply.)
a. The author did not specifically report inclusion criteria.
b. A pre-nursing student aged 18 years old or older.
c. To be regular or full time nursing students.
d. Registered for a public health or ethics nursing course.
e. Must have successfully completed a nursing research course.
f. To be in their second, third, or fourth year of a nursing program.

6. Which of these statements would be considered to be exclusion criterion specifically identified by the author for the sample in the research article?
a. The author did not specifically report exclusion criteria.
b. Students with a previous degree would be excluded from the study.
c. Students with current or previous experience working in healthcare would be excluded from the study.
d. First-year nursing students were excluded from the study since they would have had limited exposure to the clinical areas.

7. What is the refusal rate for this study? (Hint: see page 253 in your text)
a. 136/586 X 100% = 23%
b. 96/586 X 100% = 16%
c. 59/586 X 100% = 10%
d. 0%

8. Which of the following would be accurate for the attrition rate for this study?
a. 13/586 X 100% = 2%
b. 59/586 X 100% = 10%
c. 75/586 X 100% = 12%
d. 0%

9. What was the setting for this research study? Briefly describe the setting and indicate whether it was appropriate for conducting this study.
a. The setting for this study was a natural or field setting and was appropriate for this study™s research design.
b. The setting for this study was a partially controlled setting and was appropriate for this study™s research design.
c. The setting for this study was a highly controlled setting and was appropriate for this study™s research design.
d. The setting for this study was not well described by the authors and therefore not appropriate for conducting this study.

Question 10 “ 14: Measurement Methods. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12.)
10. Which one of these questionnaires, scales, or physiologic measures are used in this research study?
a. The Perceived Ethical Confidence Scale (PECS)
b. The Nursing Students™ Perception of Instructor Caring (NSPIC)
c. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)
d. The Resilience Scale (RS)

11. How do the authors describe the CURRENT reliability of the Nursing Students™ Perception of Instructor Caring (NSPIC)?
a. they computed a Cronbach™s alpha on the questionnaires that were administered to this group of subjects.
b. they compared the odd and even questions on the test to determine their equivalence
c. a team of staff nurses was trained by the primary investigator to administer the questionnaire.
d. they tested the current group of subjects twice using the same questionnaire.

12. How do the authors describe the validity of the Caring Behavior Intervention (CBI)?
a. evidence of validity from convergence and divergence
b. evidence of validity from contrasting groups
c. evidence of validity from use in multiple research studies
d. content validity was established by a panel of experts

13. Did the authors develop a questionnaire or survey for this research study? (Select all that apply.)
a. The authors developed the Nursing Students™ Perception of Instructor Caring
(NSPIC).
b. They developed their own questions to ask about demographic information.
c. Interviews were reportedly used, but the authors do not explain on what was
included.
d. They reported adding a few of their own œshort-answer questions at the end of the
questionnaire.
e. They used only previously developed questionnaires or surveys.
f. This study did not use any questionnaires or surveys.

14. Were any physiological measurements collected from the subjects for the purpose of this study?
a. Yes
b. No

Question 15- 16: Data Collection. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12)

15. Which one of the following best describes the data collection process used in this study?
a. questionnaires / surveys were completed via the telephone
b. a team of staff nurses served as the investigators and collected the data
c. questionnaires / surveys were completed via the internet
d. nurse researchers interviewed the study participants
e. questionnaires / surveys were collected via self-reporting

16. If there were more than one data collector for the study, would an estimation of inter-rater reliability be an important concept for the authors to report on for this study?
a. yes, and the authors reported their efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.
b. yes, but the authors do not discuss any efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.
c. no, the issue of inter-rater reliability does not apply here.

Question 17 “ 19: Data Analysis. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 11 & 12)
17. What descriptive statistics are used in this study? Select all that apply.
a. mean
b. frequencies
c. mode
d. standard deviation
e. z-scores
f. percentage distributions

18. What inferential statistics are used to examine the data obtained from the subjects? (Select all that apply.)
a. Pearson Correlation Coefficient
b. Factor Analysis
c. Independent sample t-Test
d. Chi-Square
e. ANCOVA
f. ANOVA
g. Multiple regression analysis
h. None of the above inferential statistics were used in this study.

19. What is the level of significance (alpha) set at for this study? ( Hint: is there an alpha given under the Tables or specifically mentioned in the text of the article?)
a. .05 or 5%
b. .10 or 90%
c .001 or 0.1%
d. a level of significance was not specifically mentioned by the author.

Question 20-25: Researcher™s Interpretation of the Findings. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 11 & 12)

20. There are several statistically significant findings in this study. Which of these statements from the article would be considered a significant and predicted result?
a. Four of the five subscales of the NSPIC correlated significantly with CBI when considered individually, which demonstrates a strong positive relationship (r = 0.587, p
b. A weak non-significant relationship was found between the œsupportive learning climate subscale and CBI (r = 0.009, p
c. The highest rated NSPIC subscale was œinstill confidence through caring (mean=4.275, SD=0.755).
d. None of the above.

21. Which one of these statements from the article would be considered a non-significant result.
a. A weak non-significant relationship was found between participants™ level of perceived confidence in decision making and self-esteem (r(23) = 0.101, p > 0.05).
b. One of the NSPIC subscale, œsupportive learning climate was not significantly related to the Caring Behavior Intervention (CBI) scores (r = 0.009, p
c. The lowest reported subscale in the CBI was œconnectedness (mean=4.541, SD=0.985).
d. None of the above.

22. Which one of these statements from the article would be considered clinically important?
a. The a coefficients were all positive, indicating that students who gave high values in these two subscales of the NSPIC reported higher degrees of caring behaviors.
b. The highest self-reported subscale in the CBI was œassurance (mean=4.796, SD=0.949), while connectedness (mean=4.541, SD=0.985) was the lowest self-reported subscale.
c. Cross sectional research design used in this study, while convenient and cost effective, does not provide a good basis for establishing cause and effect.
d. Utilizing a bigger sample from other cultures or countries to ascertain the universality of this concept in a cultural context is suggested for future studies.

23. Which statements from the article would be considered limitations of the study? (select all that apply)
a. The a coefficients were all positive, indicating that students who gave high values in these tow subscales of the NSPIC reported higher degrees of caring behaviors.
b. Cross sectional research design used in this study, while convenient and cost effective, does not provide a good basis for establishing cause and effect.
c. The convenience sampling in gathering data, which may weaken the generalizability of the finding.
d. Students™ caring behaviors is learned by experiencing caring interactions with faculty in an environment supported by positive caring faculty-student relationships.
e. The highest self-reported subscale in the CBI was œassurance (mean=4.796, SD=0.949), while connectedness (mean=4.541, SD=0.985) was the lowest self-reported subscale.

24. Which one of these statements from the article would be considered a statement regarding generalization of these results?
a. Nursing education is an ideal place to promote and develop student caring because this is where personal involvement with others occurs
b. Nursing curricula should incorporate teaching strategies in the concept of caring to promote caring values in student nurses.
c. Cross sectional research design and the use of a convenience sample does not provide a good basis for establishing cause and effect, which limits the generalizability of the finding.
d. Caring relationships between faculty and students enable students to grow as caring professional nurses and generate a caring moment.

25. Which one of these statements from the article would be considered a recommendation for future studies?
a. A weak non-significant relationship was found between the œsupportive learning climate subscale and CBI (r = 0.009, p
b. The a coefficients were all positive, indicating that students who gave high values in these tow subscales of the NSPIC reported higher degrees of caring behaviors.
c. Utilizing a bigger sample from other cultures or countries to ascertain the universality of this concept in a cultural context is suggested for future studies.
d. The implication of the study is that instructors™ caring behaviors influence nursing students™ caring behaviors positively.

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