Write a 1,400- to 1,750-word paper discussing what you believe is the greatest challenge facing U.S. higher education in the 21st century.

Write a 1,400- to 1,750-word paper discussing what you believe is the greatest challenge facing U.S. higher education in the 21st century. Include possible ways to address the challenge you identify with support from at least two theoretical frameworks you identified in your annotated bibliography (see attachment). Support your position with appropriate scholarly references. Format your paper using APA guidelines.Marcus Anderson Annotated Bibliography
Topic: The Rising Cost of Higher Education

Alexander, F. (2011). Maintenance of State Effort for Higher Education: “Barriers to Equal

Educational Opportunity in Addressing the Rising Costs of a College Education”. Journal of Higher Education, 36(4). doi. 10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.29
This study acted to address the critical issue that was raised regarding dangers of simply monitoring percentage growth without considering actual dollar increases which substantially disadvantages those colleges and universities that have endeavored to keep costs low. A suggestion of making new reporting requirements instead of developing new policy strategies to provide incentives for institutional effectiveness as crucial opportunity to reform the current system of higher education.
Archibald, R. B., & Feldman, D. H. (2008). Explaining Increases in Higher Education Costs. Journal Of Higher Education, 79(3), 268-295
The article underscores the causes of increases in higher education costs. It is posed that the cost of higher education per full-time equivalent student has increased considerably over the last 75 years. Moreover, its rise since the early 1980s has raised the awareness of the public, and opinion surveys have always underscored how much one has to pay for a college education.
Baum, S., Kurose, C., & McPherson, M. (2013). An overview of american higher education. The Future of Children, 23(1) Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1519297796?accountid=35812
In this article, an overview of postsecondary education in the United States reviews the
dramatic changes over the past fifty years in the students who go to college, the

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institutions that produce higher education, and the ways it is financed. The authors begin by observing that even the meaning of college has changed. The term that once referred primarily to a four-year period of academic study now applies to virtually any postsecondary study–academic or occupational, public or private, two-year or four-year– that can result in a certificate or degree. They survey the factors underlying the expansion of postsecondary school enrollments; the substantial increases in female, minority, disadvantaged, and older students; the development of public community colleges; and the rise of for-profit colleges. They discuss the changing ways in which federal and state governments help students and schools defray the costs of higher education as well as more recent budget tensions that are now reducing state support to public colleges. And they review the forces that have contributed to the costs of producing higher education and thus rising tuitions.
Bennett, D., McCarty, C., & Carter, S. (2015). The impact of financial stress on academic
performance in college economics courses. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal,
19(3), 25-30. Retrieved from
The rising cost of higher education and the resulting amount of student debt is a current issue for not only students and their families, but also for the entire U.S. economy. This study examines the stress created by the financial burden of the high cost of a college education and the impact of that stress on students’ academic performances. The results indicate that financially stressed students were more likely to be employed, worked longer hours, and received significantly lower grades in principles of economics courses. The financially stressed students were disproportionately females, minorities, and first generation college students.

Birkeland, K. (2011). A Closer Look at Participants, Access, and Redistribution in Higher

Education. Journal of Higher Education , 43(1). doi. 10.1177/0160323X10386804
In this article, it was discuss in recent years policy makers in the federal government have repeatedly acknowledged a policy problem surrounding the rising cost of higher education and its relation to attendance and retention of low and middle income and minority students. With higher education policy making mainly confined to state governments, however, distinctive solutions to this problem have been arising in individual states. This article presents an overview of the data collected about students that were eligible to sign the covenant, a discussion about the effect of this type of funding on the redistributive nature of higher education, and a hypothesis about the ability of this program to achieve its goal. The authors find that the program participation rate is lower in more racially diverse public schools and in public schools with more students qualified for subsidized lunches.
So far, no theoretical framework within the article are identified.

Heck, R. H., Lam, W. S., & Thomas, S. L. (2014). State Political Culture, Higher

Education Spending Indicators, and Undergraduate Graduation Outcomes. Sage

Journal, 28(1), 3-39.

Rising cost in higher education today have created new demands for postsecondary institutions to demonstrate their productivity. This article examine whether differences in states’ political cultures (i.e., underlying traditions, values, and public policy choices) are reflected in variability between state finance policy indicators and institutional variables that explain undergraduate graduation rates. Longitudinal data on state indicators and institutional variables that explain differences in graduation rates compiled over an 11-year period is tested. The findings suggest that differences in political culture represent mediating factors between states’ economic contexts and higher education appropriations, which help explain variation in their graduation rates over time.
Kimball, B. (2014). The Rising Cost of Higher Education: Charles Eliot’s “Free Money” Strategy

and the Beginning of Howard Bowen’s “Revenue Theory of Cost. Journal of Higher Education , 86(6). doi. 10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.29
The article examines the use of the revenue theory of cost and the free money strategy, formulated by former Harvard University president Charles Eliot during his tenure, to explain the increase in cost of higher education. It discusses the basis of Bowen’s theory, the adoption of Eliot’s strategy by wealthy universities during the 1910s and 1920s, and the link between Bowen’s theory and Eliot’s strategy.
Lemke, J. S., & Shughart, W. F. (2016). Richard Vedder and the Future of Higher Education Reform. Cato Journal, 36(1), 143-164. Retrieved from
In this article the causes and consequences of rising cost in higher education was discussed. The authors stated higher education system exhibits a failure to recognize either the purpose of postsecondary schooling or the potential alternative means of generating the same outcomes and social benefits. The traditional model is only one of many possible ways to encourage education, culture, and innovation. By exploring other alternatives, it may be possible to raise the quality of education and scholarly research while getting costs under control.
Raikes, M. H., Berling, V. L., & Davis, J. M. (2012). To Dream the Impossible Dream: College
Graduation in Four Years. Christian Higher Education, 11(5), 310-319.
The cost of higher education continues to climb, while calls for increased institutional
accountability and the value of a four-year degree are ever present. This research study
sought to identify factors by which consumers might predict four-year graduation rates at
institutions within the CCCU. In light of the ever-rising cost of higher education, this
study indicated that information is readily available to help families make informed
college-choice decisions.
Wolff, E. N. (2014). A comparative analysis of education costs and outcomes: The United
States vs. other OECD Countries. Economics of Education, 39(1), 1 – 21. Doi.
The study finds the level of education costs in America is significantly higher than that of all other OECD countries, education spending per student in the United States is increasing about as quickly as it is in many other countries perhaps even less quickly. Although these cost increases undoubtedly will contribute to each nation’s fiscal problems, the study conclude that effective education contributes to improvement of the economic performance of each country and can mitigate resulting financial pressures by spurring growth in overall purchasing power.

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