Book Report on Loving each other by Leo Buscaglia

Leo Buscaglia undertakes an in-depth study of loving relationships in his 1986 book titled Loving Each Other: The Challenge of Human Relationships. The study follows an increasing trend of broken relationships and loneliness among people. The answers sought by Buscaglia are how to form loving relationships as well as nurture them to grow. In addressing this issue, he avoids appearing subjective by taking into account the thoughts of the subjects in his study. Through questionnaires, the subjects present the main qualities that they believe contribute towards a loving relationship. These mainly include communication, joy, honesty, and forgiveness among others. Buscaglia then expands on these qualities. This book forms a basis for self-reflection given that these are issues that everyone faces. Many of these qualities resonated with me while I held a few reservations about others.

Communication is vital for a loving relationship. Buscaglia (1986) states that it is the most essential skill in forming and maintaining a loving and growing relationship. However, this skill is continually being ignored. Ironically, communication is an issue, yet technology allows us to talk to anyone at any time from anywhere in the world. It goes to show that the communication channel is not all that is needed but also that communication skills are just as important. In my relationships, both primary and secondary, I have encountered challenges when I needed someone to listen to me. It appears that many people want to talk but few want to listen. Buscaglia (1986) argues that sharing, which is vital in a loving relationship, stops when one senses that they are not being listened to. Deriving from personal experience, I know that sometimes listening is hard. There are times when a friend tries to share thoughts but I find myself distracted or worse, disinterested.  However, after reading this book, I intend to be a better listener as I would want the same to be reciprocated.

Honesty is yet another major quality for nurturing loving relationships. The author argues that dishonesty leads to a web of distrust that eventually destroys a relationship (Buscaglia, 1986). Yet, being entirely honest is a big challenge. Many times, lying seems to be a better option than hurtful truths in our relationships. Buscaglia (1986, p.78) captures this by stating that “We engage in these untruths, we say, in order to protect others from pain, from harm or to spare the innocent.” This is the case with most of us. I have had experiences where I had to lie because I believed that the truth would only result in great damage to my relationship. Also, not everyone is the same and people handle the truth differently, especially when it is painful. Therefore, I slightly disagree with Buscaglia on this point. This does not mean that I do not value the truth. On the contrary, I have experienced the rewards of a relationship based on honesty. The trust, security, and warmth of such a relationship are striking. However, there are things that I would prefer not to know, especially if they only lead to painful feelings. I refer to this as a few cases of omission in telling the truth instead of outright lying. Aside from that, I generally believe that honesty is crucial in a loving relationship.

There is love in forgiveness. Buscaglia (1986) argues that forgiveness has the power to heal, soothe, reunite and recreate. However, this is yet another challenging quality besides honesty when it comes to relationships. The challenge is captured by Buscaglia’s words that “Asking for forgiveness and forgiving others is a complicated process that involves our deepest empathy, humanity, and wisdom” (Buscaglia, 1986, p. 95). We have all been wronged or felt betrayed at one point or the other. Judging from my experience, I think that the ease in forgiveness depends on how we view the magnitude of the wrong done to us. It also depends on the remorsefulness of the person. In the past, I have found it very difficult to forgive those who were not willing to apologize for their mistakes. However, I like Buscaglia’s point that forgiveness should be unconditional hence the presence or absence of an apology is not an issue. Also, I have understood that we forgive for our benefit, and not that of others. I have felt pain before after being wronged by my loved ones. This only served to deny me peace and joy until I chose to let go of those negative feelings by forgiving. Hence, forgiveness, although challenging, is a quality that resonates with me and I intend to be more forgiving even when it is very hard.

The quality of Joy also resonated with me. Perhaps it is because I value my happiness dearly. Also, I believe that one of the goals of a relationship is joy. Buscaglia (1986) however, cautions us that happiness comes from within. It is wrong to expect your lover, for instance, to entirely make you happy. I have fallen into this category of expectations several times. Hence, I aim to bring my happiness into the relationship, which will then be nurtured through positive expressions such as constant laughter.  Ultimately, joy will enable me to live fully and improve my health and wellbeing as well as the lives of those with who I build relationships.

Loving relationships need to be formed and nurtured. Leo Buscaglia’s book on Loving Each Other forms the basis for self-reflection on such relationships. Many of the qualities addressed resonated with my personal experiences. These include communication, honesty, forgiveness, and joy. Having gained this insight, I look forward to nurturing my relationships with an emphasis on love.


Buscaglia, L. F. (1986). Loving Each Other: The Challenge of Human Relationships. Ballantine Books.

Exploring the Catholic Theological Tradition


Section One

Meditating upon Luke 24: 13-35 has been an extraordinary experience. During the first occasion, I had some difficulties concentrating. However, gradually as I thought about the passage, I was able to enter into meditation. I lost awareness of my surrounding environment and I felt relaxed. My focus shifted to this day when Cleopas and his companion were headed to Emmaus. Although the good news of the rising of Jesus Christ had already been told, this information had been received with disbelief. Therefore, the apostles and other followers of Jesus were still in a sorrowful and hopeless stage.

The different meditation experiences evoked feelings of empathy within me. For instance, in my first meditating occasion on verses 13-17, I could relate to the anxiety that the two disciples were experiencing and the uncertainty about the future. I could not help but think about times when things were very uncertain in my life. Verses 18-21 teach us that the disciples had put all their hope in Jesus as their redeemer, but now he had been killed ((New International Bible, Luke 24. 18-21).  While meditating on this part, I could remember numerous times when I felt hopeless.

I learned several lessons from meditating. Normally, it is likely to read verses like any other story. However, meditating allowed me to see the story of the two disciples in a different light and much clearer. It helped me think deeply about the scripture and how it impacts my life. I have also realized that it differed from the other type of meditation commonly practiced in yoga, which I have tried several times to relax. Unlike the yoga meditation, this time my objective was not only to relax but also to learn and relate deeply with the scripture.

Meditating upon this scripture has impacted positively on my life. I feel more spiritually nourished and better connected to the Holy Spirit. It is also comforting to know that despite those hopeless and anxious moments, Jesus will be in the midst of it all. Although there are numerous scriptures that one can meditate upon, Luke 24: 13-35 is suitable because it depicts one of the most important occasions in Christianity: the rising of Jesus Christ. It also contains several teachings that helped me meditate upon my life, such as the issues of hope, anxiety, difficulties in life, and matters of faith. Before meditation, I viewed these verses as just one of the several times Jesus appeared to his disciples after rising from the dead. After the practice, however, I now understand that Jesus’ aim was not only to appear to these two disciples, but also to impact teaching in them, and all of us. The scripture, therefore, acted as a guide in my meditation enabling me to reflect deeply upon my life. For instance picturing the two journeying to Emmaus saddened, anxious and hopeless enabled me to meditate upon a time when I was in a similar situation (Luke 24.13-21).

Loyola Marymount University offers many serene sites suitable for reflection. I chose to perform the practice at different locations including the Fountains on Shea Terrace and the Sacred Heart Chapel. The sound of water at the fountains masks other disruptive sounds that could have hindered my meditation. Additionally, the plants at the sites helped maintain that calm state for even deeper meditation. The other place of meditation, the Chapel, offered a very suitable environment due to its sacred nature. However, I experienced a few cases of distractions as a few activities went on within the premises, but these were minimal. Given these merits, if I had to do the practice again, I would still choose these venues. Regarding the time of meditation, I decided to do some of the occasions in the morning and the rest in the late afternoon. I believe that both times of the day had something unique to offer. The morning hours offered a freshness of the mind, while the late afternoon offered the golden sunset hour which also enabled me to meditate deeply.

Section Two

Some of the foremost theological issues in my mind include the preservation of the gospel in an ever-increasing secular world and the church’s stand on matters of marriage, sexuality, and gender. Regarding the preservation of the gospel, I feel that there are so many issues that threaten the exclusivity of the gospel. We live in a digital age where information of all kinds, which in most cases is secular, is readily available. Also, the church is threatened by greed which hinders the spread of the gospel and goes against the Bible.

The matter of marriage, sexuality, and gender is of deep concern. On one side is the bible which is our guide and is supreme hence cannot be challenged. On the other, is a changing contemporary society that faces emerging issues that might not have been acknowledged during the writing of the scriptures. Balancing these two aspects is a huge challenge for the issue. However, I believe that an amicable solution can be arrived at. Aside from that, if I had the opportunity to study catholic theology further, I would be interested in undertaking Christology to understand better the works and nature of Jesus Christ.


Work Cited

The Bible. New International Version. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1984.



Classical and Contemporary Liberal Views



All liberals desire to promote the liberties of all individuals. This is the common goal that has united liberals since the establishment of capitalism in the 18th century. However, during the industrial revolution, several issues came to light that left the liberals divided. It became apparent that a free society without enough intervention by the government led to the oppression of some groups while others benefited. This division gave rise to a new liberal view that cared about the welfare of every society member. Other supporters of the liberal ideology stood firmly behind earlier liberal interpretations. This is referred to the classic liberal view. There are several key differences between classical and contemporary liberal views.

Key Differences between the Classic and Contemporary Liberal Views of the Resources

Differences between the classical and contemporary liberal viewpoints partly stem from the definition of ‘freedom’. Classical liberalists in the 18th and 19th centuries viewed freedom as the lack of restraint. In the wake of the industrial revolution, which saw the rapid expansion of industrialization, classical liberals demanded economic freedom (Ball et al. 67). This meant that they expected the nobles to abolish restraints against trade by the middle class. A free market driven by capitalism would benefit the common citizen and society as a whole. In comparison, contemporary liberals interpret freedom as both the lack of restraint and the empowerment of individuals (Ball et al. 76). Nevertheless, liberals from both views agree that the government has a role to play in ensuring these liberties. However, classical liberals believe that the government has a lesser role to play, whereas contemporary liberals believe the opposite is true. Therefore, classical liberals define freedom differently from contemporary liberals.

Classical Liberals

Classical Liberals believe that the government should provide resources that promote economic freedom as a means of ensuring basic individual liberties. These include infrastructure, lack of economic restrictions, free trade between countries, defense from foreign invasion, and the promotion of justice and order through property rights. Infrastructure such as roads, harbors, railways, and waterways are meant to boost trade through the easy transport of raw materials and finished goods. Classical liberals also demand that the government reduce the restrictions against free trade between countries (Ball et al. 67). In a classical liberal’s view, these resources are enough to guarantee that citizens’ rights are safeguarded.

Contemporary Liberals

Contemporary liberals expect the government to provide resources that empower individuals to promote basic freedoms. Such resources include public schools, hospitals, aid to the needy and disadvantaged, regulations regarding working conditions, and affirmative action programs. Furthermore, resources should be allocated to help the deprived find equal opportunities in society and to regulate economic competition (Ball et al. 77). As mentioned in above, this class of liberals also believes that the rights of the needy and disadvantaged cannot be ignored. Finally, affirmative programs allow for the empowerment of previously discriminated groups (Ball et al. 84). These resources ensure that the basic rights of individuals are not infringed upon.

The Human Nature Conception Between Classical Liberalism and Contemporary Liberalism

 Liberalism views human beings as rational individuals. This is the perception that underpins the ideology (Ball et al. 48). Unlike conservatism, liberals believe that people can act with self-restraint when dealing with their desires and passions. However, there are slight differences that set various liberals apart in regard to human nature. Classical liberals believe that if people are not bound by restrictions, they will thrive as individuals, which will result in a successful society. However, contemporary liberalism challenges this ideology as it results in unfair competition. Hence, it advocates for a society where everybody has an equal chance to be successful. This can only be achieved by allowing more power to a government that provides social amenities such as hospitals and schools (Ball et al. 76). According to contemporary liberals, this is the true definition of freedom.


Political Liberty

The understanding of human nature and society is different for contemporary and classical liberals. This can be deduced from their respective definition of human rights. Classical liberals view people as being driven by self-interest and passion. This is the mindset that drove Adam Smith (1723-1790) to promote the view of capitalism (Ball et al. 67). Together with other intellectuals of his time, Smith argued that if people are left to trade privately, they can improve their wellbeing. Later, it emerged that such rights only favored the middle class while the working class was exploited. Classical liberals justified this approach by dubbing it as mere ‘natural selection’ as expounded by Darwin’s evolutionary theory. Those who followed this line of thought believed that human beings were meant to freely compete. In such a scenario, only the strongest would emerge successful. Consequently, classical liberals such as Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) believed that the government should not interfere with the free market (Ball et al. 75). In contrast, contemporary liberals view human beings as social beings who rely on each other. Therefore, they work to promote the welfare of all citizens, including minority groups and the disadvantaged. These differing views of human nature are portrayed in the definition of basic human rights. Classical liberals understand political liberty differently from contemporary liberals. Indeed, both schools of thought believe in political liberties as characterized by great political movements such as the French revolution (Ball et al. 63). However, their views on human nature factor into their different perspectives about political liberty. Classical liberals aim to reduce the powers of the government. In contrast, contemporary liberals seek to increase the powers of the government. Therefore, contemporary liberals believe that the administration should have much power to improve the welfare of every citizen. To realize this goal, people must actively participate in the government in order to make it a true democracy. Therefore, political liberty plays a bigger role in contemporary liberal ideology than in classical liberal ideology.

Response to Affirmative Action

The issue of affirmative action is opposed by classical liberals as such they do not believe in any interference with people’s rights, except to safeguard them. Affirmative action favors certain discriminated minority groups. This is not acceptable to a classical liberal and the bias was the center of discussions during the 19th century. Darwin’s ‘Origin of Species’ (1859) fueled the conversation by claiming that nature dictates the survival of the fittest and natural selection (Ball et al. 75). Therefore, classical liberals believe in equal opportunities at school or work.

Contemporary liberals advocate affirmative action. The welfare of the majority is at the heart of such freedom. In society, cases arise where a certain group is discriminated against. Such collectives include, for example, women whose rights are violated, certain races, and certain religions. Another common example is the discrimination faced by the black population in the US. To compensate for such past injustices that may have left such groups far behind, contemporary liberals maintain that they should be given preference in job hiring and slots in institutions of learning (Ball et al. 84). Other groups who have been discriminated against include the special needs people such as the handicapped as they are not in a position to compete fairly with other able-bodied citizens. To correct this, a contemporary liberal would support affirmative action.


Conservatism seeks to preserve certain aspects of society, such as culture or religion. It is a political ideology that is based on the concept that human beings are imperfect (Ball et al. 94). Furthermore, these flaws make humans erroneous and incapable of always doing good deeds. Therefore, a system of government that will ensure that the people act with self-restraint is required. Different conservatives disagree on what the requirements are to be considered as a conservative. For instance, conservatism in the United States was built on issues that Europe considered liberal (Ball et al. 106). Such differences have led to divisions among proponents of this ideology. The result is four different thoughts about conservatism. These include traditional, individualist, neoconservatism, and the Religious Right (Ball et al. 113). Traditional conservatism views society as a fabric where individuals are interdependent from each other. Unlike traditional conservatism, this ideology requires the government to keep competition in check and to curb self-interest. Neoconservatism focuses on cultural conservation. It also supports the ideals of welfare liberalism provided that the people are uplifted so as to be independent of the government. Finally, the Religious Right calls for the conservation of morality in society (Ball et al. 117). Although there are differing views among conservatives, the fact that the ideology has persisted over the centuries shows that it is powerful and popular.


The aim of all liberals, both classical and contemporary, is to promote individual freedom. However, the means of achieving this objective differs between the groups. This is due to the two views defining freedom different



Work Cited

Ball, Terence, et al. Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal. Taylor & Francis, 2016.











Leadership Styles


As the fearless Nelson Mandela said, a leader possesses the character of a shepherd. He remains behind his followers and allows the strongest members to go ahead of the others without realizing that a leader is directing them from behind. In other words, leadership is a collective activity in which the leader natures a platform where others can step up and lead. Leadership is diverse. Its meaning may vary from one situation to another. Nonetheless, it is unrelated to the stature a person holds in a company and it is more about development and transition of a positive attitude to other members to inspire them to achieve the shared goal. Democratic leadership remains to be the most effective leadership style.

There are five types of leadership namely: autocratic, transactional, democratic, transformational, and liberal leadership. Each leadership style has its uniqueness. However, democratic leadership outweighs the others as it utilizes a more balanced approach by valuing the affirmation and collaboration of followers. Further, it values the participation, engagement, and involvement of team members while still respecting the preferences of every member.

Democratic or participative leadership is a type of leadership, in which group members are allowed to actively participate in the decision-making process. In this type of leadership, everyone has an opportunity to contribute, share their ideas, and deliberations are encouraged. Although the process majorly focuses on group equivalence, and free flow of thoughts, the leader is always there to provide guidance and control (STU, 2018). Democratic leaders share the responsibility of making decisions and solving problems with their team members while still possessing veto power over the final decision. The participation and involvement of other team members is highly valued and the inclinations of every member are recognized and respected. By doing so, the leader creates a friendly environment for members which boosts their morale and motivates them to generate and provide creative resolutions. Additionally, it provides a cooperative environment and spirit of teamwork.

The main reason why democratic leadership is termed as participative is that it relies on the participation of its employees. The leader, in this case, aims at nurturing employees to invest in the company through investing them via their roles in the organization. As such, employees are encouraged to formulate achievable targets and acknowledge their success. The leader assists employees in developing strategies that can assist them to evaluate their performance. Further, they drive employees to advance in their jobs through promotions (Iqbal, 2015). This in return increases the morale of the employees and encourages them to perform better increasing the general productivity of the company.

Bill Gates and Steve Jobs are good examples of leaders who have used democratic tactics to improve the performance of their followers and companies. For instance, Gates allowed his people and precisely the management to govern themselves and gave attention to their discernment. Similarly, Steve Jobs saved Apple from a downfall after he assumed a democratic role, which saw Apple climb a notch higher (Iqbal, 2015). He utilized democratic leadership by hiring additional proficient leaders who he trusted with the excellence of the company (Iqbal, 2015). He encouraged and mentored several leaders who would make crucial decisions in the company. Consequently, Apple has remained a world-leading company.

Democratic leadership requires both an exceptional leader and a unique participating team. Every member should be committed to the participation process and as a result, the set goals will be achieved.



Iqbal, N., Anwar, S., & Haider, N. (2015). Effect of leadership style on employee performance. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review5(5), 1-6. Retrieved from;

St. Thomas University, (STU). (2018).What is Democratic/Participative Leadership? How Collaboration Can Boost Morale. Retrieved from;

Nuclear Medicine



There has been much advancement in medicine, as health professionals continue to work to cure the ever-threatening list of ailments and conditions, some of which are fatal. Effective medical technologies such as robotic surgery, 3-D printing, artificial organs, and nuclear medicine have been introduced. While it is a fairly new practice, nuclear medicine has accomplished milestones in treating complex ailments such as cancer and heart conditions.

The word nuclear in nuclear medicine speaks volume about this practice as it utilizes nuclear radiation. There are various types of such radiations including Alpha, Beta, X-ray, and Gamma. When it comes to nuclear medicine, Gamma radiation is mostly adopted (Ozsahin, Uzun, Musa, Şentürk, Nurçin, & Ozsahin, 2017). The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has approved substances referred to as radiopharmaceuticals. These are radioisotopes such as Fluorine-18 (F-18) or Gallium-68, attached to molecules such as glucose to form Fludeoxyglucose or Octreotide. These radioactive substances also referred to as radiotracers, are attracted to a certain part of the body (Ozsahin et al., 2017). They emit Gamma rays which are then captured by special Gamma cameras to form an image through special scans such as the Positron Emission tomography (PET scan)

Information about this type of radiation is explained at large while preparing the patients for the nuclear medicine procedure. Since it is a non-invasive procedure, not much preparation is needed. Once the patient is well aware of the facts related to nuclear medicine, the doctor will need to know if the patient is pregnant. Other information needed includes a list of current medication that the patient might be taking and any known allergies. Furthermore, jewelry and other metallic objects are removed. In some cases, the patients may be asked to slip into a hospital gown (Elgazzar, 2017).

Nuclear medicine has immense benefits. One of its biggest advantages is the level of precision it offers (Ahn, 2017). Once the radiotracers are deployed, their exact destination and area of activity can be viewed. This is mostly used to identify cancer cells hence early diagnosis. In addition to precision, it offers detailed information without turning to invasive-procedures (Love & Palestro, 2016). It, therefore, offers more safety for the patients. Nuclear medicine does not come without a few challenges. Some of these include the high associated cost of the equipment and the health risks due to overexposure to radiation. Such shortcomings, however, do not compare to the overwhelming benefits.

Imaging through Nuclear medicine assists in the diagnosis and treatment of various ailments. This is made possible by enhancing the visualization of the structure and functionality of different parts of the body such as the lungs, heart, brain, bones, liver, and so many more. Thus, illnesses such as Cancer, kidney failures, respiratory problems, coronary artery disease, Alzheimer’s disease, arthritis, hyperthyroidism, and so many more can be diagnosed earlier before they get worse (Herrmann et al., 2015).

A Positron Emission tomography (PET scan) is one of the major applications of Nuclear medicine. It is a scan used to show body activity within a cellular level. The patient is given a radiotracer (commonly Fludeoxyglucose (18F)). Since cells require glucose, the radiotracer will accumulate more around cells which require the most amount of glucose (Tarkin et al., 2017). This activity is displayed in an image where the doctor can observe and make a diagnosis or treatment. PET scans are applied in three major areas including neurology, Cancer, and cardiology. It is a well-known fact that cancer cells require a large amount of glucose. Hence, if the radiotracer containing glucose is observed to be accumulating at a certain area, then this can be a diagnosis for Cancer. When it comes to cardiology, A PET scan observes the movement of the radiotracer at the heart, to identify circulatory problems, blockages, or damages (Tarkin et al., 2017). This information then facilitates treatment. Finally, in neurology, PET scans observe the uptake of glucose by brain cells. The slow uptake of glucose by some cells helps in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease.


Nuclear medicine is a major milestone in medicine. It has simplified the treatment of complicated illnesses by offering a safer and precise alternative. It continues to save lives by assisting in early diagnosis of fatal ailments such as Cancer and heart diseases. Through Nuclear medicine, there is hope for a healthier community.



Ahn, B. C. (2017). Nuclear medicine in the era of precision medicine.

Elgazzar, A. H. (2017). Orthopedic nuclear medicine. Springer.

Herrmann, K., Bluemel, C., Weineisen, M., Schottelius, M., Wester, H. J., Czernin, J., … & Krebs, M. (2015). Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry for a probe targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen for imaging and therapy. Journal of Nuclear Medicine56(6), 855-861.

Love, C., & Palestro, C. J. (2016). Nuclear medicine imaging of bone infections. Clinical radiology71(7), 632-646.

Ozsahin, D. U., Uzun, B., Musa, M. S., Şentürk, N., Nurçin, F. V., & Ozsahin, I. (2017). Evaluating nuclear medicine imaging devices using fuzzy PROMETHEE method. Procedia computer science120, 699-705.

Tarkin, J. M., Joshi, F. R., Evans, N. R., Chowdhury, M. M., Figg, N. L., Shah, A. V., … & Kuc, R. E. (2017). Detection of atherosclerotic inflammation by 68Ga-DOTATATE PET compared to [18F] FDG PET imaging. Journal of the American College of Cardiology69(14), 1774-1791.