PSY 444 Milestone Three Guidelines and Rubric



The final project for this course is a formal research project based on one of the psychological topics provided or a topic of your choice (to be approved by your instructor), and it will include the following components: abstract, introduction, methods and results, discussion, and references. Your report should be developed as if it were being presented at an undergraduate research conference.

The final project is meant for you to propose a hypothetical study. You are not and should not be conducting human-subject research for this project. It is not necessary for the purposes of this assignment. All human-subject research requires written approval from the SNHU COCE Institutional Review Board in order to protect the welfare and ensure ethical treatment of the subjects.‚ÄĚ


Submit a draft of your  discussion section. There are several important objectives that need to be accomplished in the discussion:

¬∑ Address the original question‚ÄĒwere the results congruent with what was expected (hypothesis) and what was found (results)?

· If hypothesis was supported, state why and how.

· If the hypothesis was not supported, state why. For example, discuss potential sources of research error. (Apply the same critique methods used in the literature review.)

· Relate your research findings to existing research that was cited in your literature review.

· State how your research can be applied, extended, and/or improved.

The following critical elements in the Final Project Rubric are related to this milestone:

IV. Discussion: For the last section of your research report, you will write a discussion section, which describes your interpretation of the results and speaks to how future researchers can expound on your work. This section should contain the following elements, which will demonstrate your ability to detail the process of conducting research and to appropriately convey your results:

A. Interpret your results

B. Discuss any limitations or ethical issues

What to Submit

The draft of your discussion section should be 3‚Äď4 pages in length, double spaced, with 12-point Times New Roman font, one-inch margins, and APA formatting. Cite any references using APA formatting.

analyze a contemporary issue in criminal justice and provide an evidence-based recommendation to address the issue

Final Project Guidelines and Rubric


For your final project, you will analyze a contemporary issue in criminal justice and provide an evidence-based recommendation to address the issue, selecting an issue of interest on which to focus your brief. You will analyze how the issue has evolved, apply criminological theories to identify causes of the issue, assess the impact of the issue on the community, and propose strategies to address the issue.

Professionals in the field of criminal justice are often faced with making difficult decisions related to critical issues in their field. Those that are able to effectively take action to address these issues are seen as leaders in the field. To effectively form conclusions and recommend appropriate action, it is essential that professionals first analyze the background of the issue. Professionals must understand the history of the issue, the contributing factors, and the impact of the issue on the various individuals and groups involved, all through conducting research and applying criminological theories. This information will then inform data-driven recommendations to effectively address the issue. While the scale of these recommendations may vary (as some resolutions may be immediate while others are complete cultural changes), the solutions will all be rooted in data, and the success of results will be continuously monitored.

In this assignment, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following course outcomes:

· Analyze the evolution of contemporary criminal justice issues for their impact on society

· Draw connections between contemporary criminal justice issues and core criminological theories for identifying factors that contribute to the issues

· Determine how contemporary criminal justice issues impact institutions, individuals, and the ability of key stakeholders to influence change

· Assess the effectiveness of strategies used by public service agencies in the delivery of criminal justice services

· Propose evidence-based strategies to address contemporary issues impacting the delivery of criminal justice services

The project is divided into  three milestones, which will be submitted at various points throughout the course to scaffold learning and ensure quality final submissions. These milestones will be submitted in  Modules Three, Five, and  Seven. The final case analysis will be submitted in  Module Nine.


For this project, you will play the part of a team leader working in a criminal justice agency. You have been asked by the senior leadership to assist with addressing an issue that is negatively impacting the delivery of criminal justice services. You have been asked to write a brief providing an evidence-based recommendation to address the issue, while also detailing your research, which will then inform the solution that the senior leadership will present to the mayor. You will select a contemporary issue that is negatively impacting the delivery of criminal justice services to be the focus of your brief, and then research the history of the issue, select a solution, and propose strategies for implementing the solution.  Although you may choose your own topic, you may not choose public policy.

Specifically, the following  critical elements must be addressed:

I. Introduction

A. Describe the criminal justice  issue you have selected. Specifically, how is this an issue in the field of criminal justice, what is the general impact of the issue on society, and why does the problem need to be addressed?

B. Describe the  evolution of the selected  issue throughout history, providing specific examples. In other words, how did this become an issue? What factors have caused the issue to evolve? For example, a regulation may have been created in the past to address an issue, but the regulation is now irrelevant.

C. Describe the  evolution of the historical  perception of this issue, identifying key events and factors that influenced the public perception. For example, did the public always view the topic as an issue? How has technology impacted public perception?

II. Issue Analysis

A. Select a criminological  theory that informs your understanding of the issue, justifying your selection.

B. Identify  factors contributing to the issue, justifying your identifications with the selected criminological theory. In other words, what are the factors contributing to the issue? How is the identification of these factors supported by the selected theory?

C. Describe how the issue impacts the  criminal justice system, providing specific examples of how the branches of the criminal justice system are affected by the issue. For example, how does the issue impact law enforcement, the courts, and corrections?

D. Describe how the issue impacts the  general public, providing specific examples. Does the issue affect specific populations?

E. Determine the key  stakeholders of the issue, identifying both the key people impacted by the issue and those with the power to influence change. Justify your selections.

F. Describe  strategies that are currently employed to address the issue. These strategies may be used in the community with the issue, or in a different community with the same issue.

G. Assess the  effectiveness of the previously identified strategies in addressing the issue, justifying your assessment. How effectively do the strategies combat the issue, and where are there gaps?

H. How does your previous assessment impact the specific  branches of the criminal justice system? Justify your response. In which branches are the strategies most and least effective?

III. Recommendations

A. Propose a  solution to address the issue in criminal justice, justifying your proposal with your previous research. In your justification, you may consider the complexity of the solution, the possible adverse effects, and the feasibility of the solution in terms of time and resources.

B. Apply criminological  theory to justify how your proposed solution will address the underlying causes of the issue.

C. Outline the  immediate actions that will need to be taken to implement the solution, justifying the necessity and feasibility of these actions with evidence. Consider how you will create buy-in among invested parties.

D. Outline the  long-term actions that will need to be taken to implement the solution, justifying the necessity and feasibility of these actions with evidence. Consider how you will create buy-in among invested parties.

E. Determine the types of  data necessary  to assess whether or not your  solution is successful in addressing the issue, justifying your determinations. How will you measure your success of the solution?


Milestone One:¬†¬†Selection of Contemporary Criminal Justice Issue¬†In¬†¬†Module Three, you will select a¬†¬†contemporary¬†issue that is negatively impacting the delivery of criminal justice‚ÄĒone that will be the focus of your final case analysis and recommendation brief. In this draft, you will demonstrate your understanding of the issue and its history, evolution, and development. You will need to focus on past and future criminological theories and policies behind these issue. Given your analysis of the issue, discuss the impact on society and what problems need to be addressed to remedy the negative ramifications. This milestone must be formatted according to APA style. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page.¬†¬†This milestone will be graded with the Milestone One Rubric.

Milestone Two:  Criminal Justice Issue Analysis In  Module Five, you will submit your in-depth  analysis on the contemporary criminal justice issue that you have selected. This analysis will identify factors contributing to the issue by examining the criminological theories behind the issue. Specifically, what criminological theory forms your understanding of the issue? Indicate the impact of this issue on the criminal justice system. For example, how does the issue impact law enforcement, the courts, and corrections? Address the negative impacts of the issue on the criminal justice system, general public, and specific populations. Then, identify strategies to influence change. Be sure to cite any data you have analyzed so far; you will rely upon this data to provide recommendations to your criminal justice issue in both the Module Six Short Paper and your Milestone Three submission in Module Seven. This milestone must be formatted according to APA style. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page.  This milestone will be graded with the Milestone Two Rubric.

Milestone Three:¬†¬†Preliminary Recommendations to the Mayor¬†In¬†¬†Module Seven, you will submit a draft of your preliminary¬†¬†recommendations¬†to the mayor based on your criminal justice issue selection and analysis. These recommendations will inform the mayor and other senior leadership about a course of action to solve the issue you selected. Based entirely on your research and the analysis you provided in Milestone Two, propose a strategy to implement a solution to the issue. Assess the strategy’s potential for success, but also identify possible hurdles and obstacles to the implementation of the recommendations you have proposed. This milestone must be formatted according to APA style. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page. Instructor feedback to this milestone should be applied to the final project, due in Module Nine.¬†¬†This milestone will be graded with the Milestone Three Rubric.

Final Submission:  Final Issue Analysis and Recommendation Brief In  Module Nine, you will submit your  final issue analysis and recommendation brief. It should be a complete, polished artifact containing  all of the critical elements of the final product. It should reflect the incorporation of feedback gained throughout the course. All of the components of the final project will be used for your portfolio.  This submission will be graded with the Final Project Rubric.

What to Submit

Your submission must include reference to recent peer-reviewed articles, be¬†5‚Äď7 pages¬†in length (in addition to the title page and references) and must adhere to standard formatting (Times New Roman, 12 point font, one-inch margins), using the most recent version of the APA style manual for the citations.

Integrating Multiple Networks

For a growing business, one location is typically not enough. With enough personnel and capital, many businesses prefer to set up multiple offices to attract different regions of customers.

With separate offices, how can your business install a network so all the locations can work, communicate, and share information easily, instantaneously, and effectively? For your main post, assume the following:

A business has two locations in different states. Both locations have their own T1 internet connections. How do you join these two networks together so every computer can see every other computer?

Your solution should provide a suggested overview to achieve the end goal of integrating the networks. Be sure you address important issues like maintaining security, reliability, end-user operations, and network speed.

Preparation For The School Year And Maintaining Student Behavior



Introduction: This module focuses on preparation for the school year and maintaining student behavior. As you read about and explore each of the topics found in Chapters 3-5, reflect and make connections to either your teaching practice or the practices of the teachers you believe have most influenced you.


Grading: This assignment is worth 90 points. Please see the rubric for the grading of this assignment. Keep in mind that excessive grammar, punctuation, spelling, and composition errors will result in a reduction of points for this assignment. Failure to submit the assignment by the due date may result in a reduction equivalent to a letter grade reduction.


Due Date: The due date for this assignment may be found in the course assignment link in Canvas or on the course calendar in the syllabus.



· Submit your assignment as ONE Word Document via the appropriate assignment function.

· You must use Microsoft Word, font TNR, size 12, single spaced

¬∑ Use headings (example ‚Äď Section 1: Vocabulary), so that sections are clearly labeled.

· Be thorough in your responses to each section.



I. Vocabulary


Directions:¬†In your own words, fully define each term/concept and provide an example from the real word of education, preferably your school setting. Make sure to label the definition and label the example. Follow the example included below with the term ‚ÄúSubstitute folder.‚ÄĚ (Worth 2 points each, for a total of 14 points)


a. Substitute folder



b. Situational assistance

c. Dominance

d. Cooperation

e. Emotional objectivity

f. Desists

g. Satiation





Make sure to include the question when answering the short answer- question.

II. Short-Answer Questions (worth a total of 60 points)


Answer each of the following in approximately two or three sentences.


Chapter 3




1. What are the reasons for stopping inappropriate behavior quickly?




2. Identify several guidelines for decisions in planning for the first day of school and briefly explain each.




3. What are the five keys to good room arrangement? Briefly explain each.



Chapter 4





1. Why is it helpful to discuss the reasons for each classroom rule? When teaching classroom rules, why is it helpful to provide specific examples of behaviors that meet or break a rule?




2. What are the advantages of the teacher demonstrating a procedure to students?




3. Identify several general classroom procedures that can enhance student responsibility for their behavior.


Chapter 5




1. Identify four ways that teachers can communicate caring and support to their students. Describe two ways that teachers can express a level of dominance with their students without being too negative.




2. Identify two ways that teachers can express withitness in their classroom.




3. Define momentum and identify several ways that teachers maintain momentum throughout a lesson.


4. Why would teachers try to maintain a group focus during instruction?




5. Identify several guidelines for the effective use of using questions to maintain attention and promote learning. Briefly explain each.




6. Define reinforcer and identify the main categories of reinforcers that can be used in the classroom.




III. Assignments (worth a total of 10 points)


1.¬†Read ‚ÄúVOICES FROM THE CLASSROOM ‚Äď Three Tips for Teacher Talk‚ÄĚ and complete the writing prompt.


Three Tips for Teacher Talk


By Cristina Fontana, first-grade teacher, Guilford, Connecticut


Using effective language in the classroom and when conversing with students is crucial. Below are some guidelines that I keep in mind when I converse with students.


Less is more. I have found that the less I address the whole class, the more students listen when I do address them. Less teacher talk allows for conversations to be more student directed. Student-led conversations foster agency and encourage sharing of ideas.


I have found that proper planning prior to a lesson is what has helped me to talk less. Before a lesson, I plan out the intended learning as well as possible prompting questions to allow students to get to the end goal.


Wait time.¬†It is important to allow adequate wait time after posing a question or asking for student input. Extending my wait time has increased student participation. When we do not allow for proper wait time, the students who take longer to process or compose ideas may get discouraged. Students may also start to think, ‚ÄúI don’t need to think of the answer, Johnny will answer for me.‚ÄĚ Wait time slows down the conversation and allows students to process the ideas that are being shared.


Depending on the lesson, I may wait for every student to have an answer to share with the group. Asking students to put their thumbs up on their knees when they have an answer and waiting for each student to do so gives every student the amount of processing time he/she needs to arrive at an answer. This fosters student agency and teaches students that all of their ideas are important and valued.


Ask open-ended questions.¬†When asking closed questions (i.e., yes or no responses) the conversation has nowhere to go. To help me realize when I was using closed questioning, I started audio recording my lessons. I then listened to the questions I asked and thought about how I could change the questions to be more open-ended. For example, rather than asking, ‚ÄúDid the character change?‚ÄĚ I would ask, ‚ÄúHow did the character change?‚ÄĚ That small change can take the answer from a simple yes or no to a discussion or debate.


WRITING PROMPT:¬†Summarize the ‚ÄúThree Tips for Teacher Talk‚ÄĚ and how you might implement these strategies in your classroom. Name and explain a tip you might add to the list of three.



2.¬†Read ‚ÄúWHAT WOULD YOU DECIDE? ‚Äď Poor Guidance with Soft Limits‚ÄĚ and answer the two questions that follow.


Poor Guidance with Soft Limits


Near the end of some seatwork, you give directions to the students to soon be ready for their next large group activity. After a couple of minutes, you see an idle student and you say, ‚ÄúAustin, you are supposed to be getting ready for the next activity. Okay?‚ÄĚ Even after you leave Austin’s area, you then notice that he is not moving. But you decide not to go back to him because he might complain about you nagging him.


Questions to ponder and answer:

1. What specific problems with soft limits are illustrated in this example? Explain what is meant by soft limits.


2. If you were the teacher, how specifically might you have used firm limits to better address the situation? Explain what is meant by firm limits.



IV. Case Study (worth a total of 6 points)




Poor Monitoring, Unfortunate Results


Abby Leibowitz’s middle-level social studies class was completing a unit on the branches of the government and the role of political parties. Since an election for the state’s governor was coming up, they had examined the candidates as a way to see the distinction between the parties. To summarize that information, Ms. Leibowitz split the class into four groups and asked each group to display the parties’ similarities and differences on big Post-it sheets with the use of a graphic organizer, such as a compare/contrast chart or a Venn diagram. After giving directions and forming the groups, Ms. Leibowitz was at her desk jotting some notes about a discipline incident from her last class period.


Some students were into the task; others were not. Some groups didn’t know what a Venn diagram is or had disagreements about which graphic organizer to use. Some students started to doodle with the magic markers that were to be used on the poster paper. The students who wanted to get the poster prepared complained to the others who were off task. After a while, the noise increased, and most groups were not making much progress. Ms. Leibowitz had barely looked up during this time.


Focus Questions

1. How might Ms. Leibowitz improve her monitoring of the students’ behavior and progress when they are in the groups? How could she show her withitness to the students during group work?


2. What problems might Ms. Leibowitz have foreseen with her plan? What adjustments might she have made before the lesson to have it work out better? (Foreseeing problems is part of withitness.)

Education Accountability And Accreditation Assignment


The Requested Pro/Con Analysis

Given your growing reputation as an expert in knowing and understanding issues related to higher education, you have been asked to author a pro/con analyses for a group of local businesspeople interested in examining the degree to which the local state college is indeed spending its money accurately. The local university has consistently made the case that educational investment in relatively light teaching loads creates an opportunity for better levels of teacher performance due to their ability to serve students at higher levels and potentially pursue their publication agenda. Critics of the system indicate that teachers should be given heavier loads and dollars need to be allocated towards other important learning objectives. Your goal is to examine these two arguments and create a pro/con analysis that includes the following.

Your work should come in the form of a formal APA paper and come in the following components.

· Component 1: Introduction: you will describe the challenges associated with the establishment of teaching loads and issues in institutions of higher education.

¬∑¬†Component 2:¬†Making the case for lower teaching loads ‚Äď In this section you will make the case based on scholarly support and advisement for maintaining lower teacher loads as a mechanism for improving quality. Be explicit in this section based on the literature that supports this objective.

¬∑¬†Component 3:¬†An argument against lighter teacher loads ‚Äď In this section you will attempt to make the case against lighter teacher loads as an institutional objective. Describe how these lighter loads may not necessarily lead to higher levels of institutional performance.

· Organization & Conclusion: Offer some thoughts on which of the pro/con statements that you provided you feel most closely resemble what is likely to be the true pathway towards goal attainment. The readers are expecting you to provide a fair and competent analysis, making strong cases for both pro and con. They are, however, looking for your recommendation in conclusion.

· Mechanics

Please ensure in executing this assignment that you make specific references to the readings provided as well as the utilization of at least three outside references which can be used to support your ideas presented. The use of outside sources is important because even though the materials provided for this course are excellent, as a graduate student you are expected to be able to consult a variety of sources regarding a given topic and synthesize that scholarly input into a thoughtful set of recommendations, conclusions, etc.

The essay should be 1850 – words and should include at least three (3) citations. The sections should be clearly marked with headings so that your instructor knows which points you are addressing. Follow the guidelines for APA writing style. The title page and references page do not count towards the minimum word amount for this assignment.