Community-Based Corrections

 

Chapter Eight

  1. Both halfway houses and work release are both residential programs. Halfway houses are residential community correctional facilities for parolees and probationers. This program can also be applied as an intermediate sentencing before prison. Work release is a program where offenders can acquire job skills to enable them to maintain employment while at the same time allowing for restitution, before release.
  2. Working in a halfway house would be quite challenging given that there is a program to implement. However, it would be much easier to supervise the probationers and parolees since they understand they understand that violations could lead them back to prison. They are also motivated and eager for a full release. Some of the challenges I might face include limited funds at the halfway house and be implementing the heavy monitoring associated with the program.
  3. Programs such as the John Craine House have several advantages such as being less costly than the prison system hence saving on taxpayers’ money, they allow women to spend time with their children, and they are associated with a very low rate of recidivism. For this reason, they should be expanded.
  4. Correctional boot camps adopt a military approach to instilling discipline through intensive physical training and hard labor. Their positive aspects include saving on costs by reducing the time served in prison and they reduce the rate of recidivism. They have, however, been accused of enforcing intensive physical activities which have led to injuries and even reported deaths in a few cases. They may also inflict trauma on the victims.

 

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Chapter Nine

  1. Parole or probation enhancement includes day reporting centers and community service while house arrest is a true alternative to prison.
  2. Electronic monitoring (EM) enhances the supervision of offenders under house arrest through the use of technology such as the global positioning system (GPS) to monitor their location. EM has been accused of net widening while others criticize it for being just a profitable scheme of private companies. EM also leads to feelings of shame and family problems that arise from staying at home.
  3. Electronic monitoring works through transmitters and receivers. The offender is fitted with an electronic device such as an ankle monitor which can transmit to a home-based receiver using radio-frequencies. This way, the offender has to be within a certain range of the receiver or else it sounds an alarm to the correctional supervisor. The other type of EM is the global positioning system which unlike house arrest, allows for more movement. It uses a GPS tracking device fitted on the offender to monitor his or her day to day activities. Some of the technical problems of EM include the jamming of GPS systems, false positive reporting, locations being off by as much as three miles, and the offenders tampering with the alerts.
  4. Day reporting centers are meant to provide resources, educational programs, and other constructive activities such as counseling to probationers or parolees. This ensures they spend their time engaging in positive activities instead of crime. Therefore, day reporting centers accomplish their objectives.

 

Chapter Ten

  1. Unlike traditional justice approaches which focus on the punishment of the offender, restorative justice focuses on the offender, the victim, and the community throughout the process. Restorative justice does this by emphasizing the need for an offender to acknowledge their crime and admitting to the wrong done to the victim and the community.
  2. Monetary restitution and community service are both forms of reparations by offenders to compensate for the harm done. They differ in that monetary restitution involves paying off a certain amount of money to the victim while community service involves unpaid labor to the society.
  3. For juveniles who are too young to work full time, they can work part-time on community services or for their victims.
  4. It is fair since in most cases probationers are employed, unlike parolees who face difficulties in obtaining employment due to their criminal record. Also, while the probationer may have been working, parolees have been in prison.
  5. Fees are court-imposed reimbursements that the offender pays for the administration of the criminal justice system, therefore not punitive, while fines are punitive. This is why their collection is treated differently. They should not be treated the same since they are not imposed with the same objective.
  6. Day fines have failed to catch on in the American justice system for two main reasons, first due to the failure of offenders to pay the day fines and second, because research has shown that they do not lower the rate of recidivism.

Chapter Eleven

  1. During re-entry into the community, prisoners face various issues including obtaining employment, housing, difficulties in reuniting with the family, and stigmatization.
  2. Prisoner reentry can lead to the victim having safety concerns. However, through restorative justice, prisoner reentry can be beneficial to the victim through restitution where they can feel that justice is served.
  3. Issues related to prisoner reentry and the impact to their families include the prisoner reintegration into the family and rebuilding family trust and bonds. There might be bitterness especially between parents and children who might feel that they have been neglected.
  4. Yes, I would, meeting the offender and expressing how his or her violent actions have affected me psychologically, physically, and mentally would help me overcome the post-traumatic stress and eventually forgive the offender. It would also ensure that the offender feels remorse for his or her actions by getting to know how the actions affected my life. The impact statement would also assist the correctional officers in determining the best correctional measures to take for the offender.
  5. The primary qualifications of a good parole member are integrity, intelligence, and good judgment to gain public confidence and command respect. These qualities are necessary to enable in the making of informed, sound, and unbiased parole decisions.
  6. Since the prisoner is being released into the community, the parole board should have a good relationship with the community to enable in identifying the best parole conditions for effective community-based correction of the offender.
  7. As a parole board member, I would consider first the safety and interests of the community. Also, I would evaluate the victim impact statement, and the judge sentencing remarks. Finally, I would assess the prisoner’s attitude towards his past crime and his or her reentry plan into the community.
  8. I would prefer discretionary release as it would allow me to gain social support and a smooth transition from the prison and back into the society. This ensures an effective reentry plan which would ensure that I don’t go back to the life of crime. This is unlike mandatory release whereby I would be unprepared.

 

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Eco-You the Future Is Now

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Minimizing waste: By considering buying only the products that I need, avoiding excessive packaging and recycling everything recyclable I have managed to promote efficient waste management.  The activities that I have done include separating my household stuff that can be reused before disposing of them. Most of my kitchen wastes I considered reusing them in my vegetable garden. For my furniture’s, clothes and electrical appliances I considered recycling them. To improve proper waste management one should consider donating unwanted materials to the nearest recycling groups. I have also planted more plants and trees in my home area to improve the surrounding air, acting as my source of food and shade. More trees should be planted to reduce climatic changes and natural disasters. Compost kitchen waste: I have tried using as much food as possible from my kitchen and used all unusable raw waste to make compost fertilizer for my garden. Inorganic fertilizers should be avoided in all manners. I have also tried replacing my old home appliances with energy efficient appliances such as new water heaters as a solution for saving energy. I considered using public transportation to reduce cost and carbon emissions (Gorman-Murray & Lane, 2012).

Recycling: I have been recycling all my old household trash and cleaning my house. This helped to reduce pressure on raw materials. I ensured I made right choices regarding my purchases of the sustainable product. To avoid wasting food, I considered consuming first what I had refrigerated previously. I have also planted food in my garden such as vegetables which are free from chemicals (Gorman-Murray & Lane, 2012). On the course of the week, I worked on leaking pipes and faulty wiring in my home by replacing and insulating them to conserve energy, minimize waste and reduce my utility bills. I have also joined and supported organizations dedicated to sustainability in my area.

 

References

Gorman-Murray, A., & Lane, R. (Eds.). (2012). Material geographies of household sustainability. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

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Four Types Of Perceptual Distortions

 Discusses four types of perceptual distortions: stereotyping, halo effects, selective perception, and projection. Define each of these types of perceptual distortions and provide a full example of each perceptual distortion.

For each discussion, you are required to write an initial post (300 words) and one secondary post (200 words).  The discussion forums will be worth 40 points apiece—25 points for the initial post and 15 points for the secondary post.  For your initial and secondary posts, you must have two academic peer-reviewed articles for references.  You must get them from the library.  There are directions at the top of our Moodle page showing how to utilize the library

Reply to below response

 

Types of perceptual distortions:

Perception is the way toward incorporating their condition. In layman’s words, it is a half-production procedure to understand their environment to react legitimately. The current condition of the perceptual beneficiary depends on the brain, character and appreciation, where there is dependably a blunder in the depiction and ensuing data.

Stereotyping:

Stereotyping is specific gathering or class (social, ethnic, religious, or sexual introductions) just based on enrollment of the property, for example, he is an Italian, so he knows a ton about Rome. The most widely recognized, the adjustment in the obstruction

Halo effect:

Halo effect is between the two, a steady paying little respect to the general population is a component of the innovation depends on the numerous highlights Bust constructive effect on the great quality, have an antagonistic effect of terrible element in the purposes behind the other party less experienced individual, a notable attributes of the solid good ramifications For example, he is chuckling, so he should come clean.

Selective Perception:

Selective perception is the alternative Awareness Support and trust in the data that affirms the conviction that the pre-channel that depicts the particular data.

Projection:

Projection that they have the properties themselves or hand over to others emotions. For example, I have a few things that I experience the ill effects of it will put off, to defer our gathering can state an example he says.

Counselor Ethical Boundaries And Practices (Obj. 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, And 8.4)

1
Unsatisfactory
0.00%

2
Less than Satisfactory
74.00%

3
Satisfactory
79.00%

4
Good
87.00%

5
Excellent
100.00%

70.0 %Content

15.0 % Section 1: Boundary Issues and Dual Relationships  2.1: Evaluate elements of counselor-client relationships within the practice of professional counseling, focusing on professional ethical standards. 

Essay omits or incompletely develops a discussion of ethical dual relationships criteria and examples as specified in the assignment.  Section does not demonstrate understanding of the topic.

Develops an incomplete discussion of ethical dual relationships. Only vaguely or inappropriately identifying criteria relevant to the decision-making process concerning ethical and appropriate boundary-crossing or dual relationships between counselors and clients. Provides incorrect/irrelevant application of the criteria to example situations. Presents less than the required number of situation examples.  Section demonstrates a poor understanding of the topic.

Includes a discussion of ethical dual relationships.  Includes basic criteria used to determine whether particular boundary-crossings or dual relationships between counselors and clients are ethical and appropriate. Applies the criteria to situations where dual relationships are complex and ambiguous.   Essay demonstrates a basic understanding of the topic.

Includes a thorough discussion of ethical dual relationships that includes criteria to determine whether particular boundary-crossings or dual relationships between counselors and clients are ethical and appropriate. Applies the criteria to situations where dual relationships are complex and ambiguous, making clear explanations on the connections between the situations. Presents the required number of examples.  Section demonstrates an understanding that extends beyond the surface of the topic.

Includes a thorough discussion of ethical dual relationships that includes criteria to determine whether particular boundary-crossings or dual relationships between counselors and clients are ethical and appropriate. Applies the criteria to situations where dual relationships are complex and ambiguous, making clear explanations on the connections between the situations. Information provided is rich in detail and fully supported. Presents the required number of examples and includes scholarly references to further promote understanding.  Section demonstrates an exceptional understanding of the topic.

15.0 % Section 2: Professional Collaboration in Counseling: Working with a Multidisciplinary Team   1.2: Analyze independent and collaborative roles of the professional counselor. 

Does not discuss how to work collaboratively with other mental health professionals and multidisciplinary teams. Does not discuss who would be expected to be on the multidisciplinary team or the role of member of the multidisciplinary team.   Section does not demonstrate understanding of the topic.

Only vaguely discusses how to work how to work collaboratively with other mental health professionals and multidisciplinary teams. Only vaguely discusses who would be expected to be on the multidisciplinary team or the role of member of the multidisciplinary team.   Section demonstrates a poor understanding of the topic.

Accurately discusses how to work how to work collaboratively with other mental health professionals and multidisciplinary teams. Accurately discusses who would be expected to be on the multidisciplinary team or the role of member of the multidisciplinary team.   Section demonstrates a basic understanding of the topic.

Thoroughly and thoughtfully discusses how to work how to work collaboratively with other mental health professionals and multidisciplinary teams. Thoroughly and thoughtfully discusses who would be expected to be on the multidisciplinary team or the role of member of the multidisciplinary team.   Section demonstrates an understanding that extends beyond the surface of the topic.

Thoroughly and thoughtfully discusses how to work collaboratively with other mental health professionals and multidisciplinary teams. Information provided is rich in detail and fully supported. Thoroughly and thoughtfully discusses who would be expected to be on the multidisciplinary team or the role of member of the multidisciplinary team. Information provided is rich in detail and fully supported.  Section demonstrates an exceptional understanding of the topic.

25.0 % Section 3: Relationships with Supervisors and Colleagues

Does not discuss the role of the clinical supervisor and their primary responsibilities. Does not discuss ethical issues involved in the supervisor-counselor relationship or options open to the counselor concerning issues of incompetence and/or ethical conduct by fellow counselors. Does not discuss an unethical behavior and an ethical decision-making model that can be used to address the unethical behavior.   Section does not demonstrate understanding of the topic.

Only vaguely discusses the role of the clinical supervisor and their primary responsibilities. Only vaguely discusses ethical issues involved in the supervisor-counselor relationship and options open to the counselor concerning issues of incompetence and/or ethical conduct by fellow counselors. Only vaguely discusses an unethical behavior and an ethical decision-making model that can be used to address the unethical behavior.   Section demonstrates a poor understanding of the topic.

Accurately discusses the role of the clinical supervisor and their primary responsibilities. Accurately discusses ethical issues involved in the supervisor-counselor relationship and various options open to the counselor concerning issues of incompetence and/or ethical conduct by fellow counselors. Accurately discusses an unethical behavior and an ethical decision-making model that can be used to address the unethical behavior.  Section demonstrates a basic understanding of the topic.

Thoroughly and thoughtfully discusses the role of the clinical supervisor and their primary responsibilities. Thoroughly and thoughtfully discusses ethical issues involved in the supervisor-counselor relationship and options open to the counselor concerning issues of incompetence and/or ethical conduct by fellow counselors. Thoroughly and thoughtfully discusses an unethical behavior and an ethical decision-making model that can be used to address the unethical behavior.  Section demonstrates an understanding that extends beyond the surface of the topic.

Thoroughly and thoughtfully discusses the role of the clinical supervisor and their primary responsibilities. Information provided is rich in detail and fully supported. Thoroughly and thoughtfully discusses ethical issues involved in the supervisor-counselor relationship and options open to the counselor concerning issues of incompetence and/or ethical conduct by fellow counselors. Information provided is rich in detail and fully supported. Thoroughly and thoughtfully discusses an unethical behavior and an ethical decision-making model that can be used to address the unethical behavior. Information provided is rich in detail and fully supported.  Section demonstrates an exceptional understanding of the topic.

15.0 % Section 4: Development of Your Thinking about Ethics   5.2: Recognize the importance of establishing and maintaining appropriate professional boundaries. 

Does not explain changes made to personal thinking about ethical practices. Does not explain how developments during the course extend to understanding the importance of professional ethics. Does not include specific examples.   Section does not demonstrate understanding of the topic.

Only vaguely or incompletely explains how changes have been made to personal thinking about ethical practices. Does not clearly explain how developments during the course extend to understanding the importance of professional ethics. Specific examples included are poor.   Section demonstrates a poor understanding of the topic.

Explains basics of how changes have been made to personal thinking about ethical practices. Provides explanation of how developments during the course extend to understanding the importance of professional ethics. Appropriate specific examples are included.   Section demonstrates a basic understanding of the topic.

Explains basics of how changes have been made to personal thinking about ethical practices. Provides explanation of how developments during the course extend to understanding the importance of professional ethics. Explanation is thoughtful and well-analyzed. Examples included demonstrate a thorough understanding of the topic.   Section demonstrates an understanding that extends beyond the surface of the topic.

Thoroughly explains how changes have been made to personal thinking about ethical practices. Clearly discusses how developments during the course extend to understanding the importance of professional ethics. Explanation is thoughtful and well-analyzed. Examples included demonstrate and advanced understanding of the topic.   Section demonstrates an exceptional understanding of the topic.

20.0 %Organization and Effectiveness

7.0 % Thesis Development and Purpose

Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.

Thesis and/or main claim are insufficiently developed and/or vague; purpose is not clear.

Thesis and/or main claim are apparent and appropriate to purpose.

Thesis and/or main claim are clear and forecast the development of the paper. It is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.

Thesis and/or main claim are comprehensive. The essence of the paper is contained within the thesis. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

8.0 % Argument Logic and Construction

Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources.

Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility.

Argument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis.

Argument shows logical progressions. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative.

Clear and convincing argument that presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.

5.0 % Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice and/or sentence construction are used.

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register) and/or word choice are present. Sentence structure is correct but not varied.

Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct and varied sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are employed.

Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. The writer uses a variety of effective sentence structures and figures of speech.

Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

10.0 %Format

5.0 % Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)

Template is not used appropriately or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.

Appropriate template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken. A lack of control with formatting is apparent.

Appropriate template is used. Formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.

Appropriate template is fully used. There are virtually no errors in formatting style.

All format elements are correct.

5.0 % Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style

Sources are not documented.

Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.

Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

 

100 % Total Weightage

Journeys In Fiction

 

Edgar Allan Poe

The American writer Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) is well known for his short stories and poems which elicits emotions and individualism.  Poe’s tales and poems feature several themes including love, nature, hope and despair, human imagination, the subconscious, uncertainty and even death. In fact, most of his work is termed as scary. The nature of death features in many of Poe’s fiction as well as questions regarding the afterlife. He, however, seems to give the dead power over the living where at times the narrator cannot do away with the dead’s memories. He has a way of combining love and death in quite a scary way where his intention might have been to show that love triumphs death. Poe also explores the relationship between love and hate in an approach where he demonstrates that the two are inseparable. He appears to be of the view that it is possible to love and hate a person at the same time which proves a paradox. Poe has also employed the use of alter egos or otherwise the subconscious self. This involves the depiction of a double who features characteristics that mirror his. Nature is also cast in his narratives as being good and largely preaches against its encroachment by men. Human imagination is as well another theme which exhibits the power people possess to imagine.

 

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Hawthorne’s Criticism of Aylmer

“The Birth-Mark” is a short story by Nathaniel Hawthorne. In this story, Hawthorne is seen as a critic of Aylmer, one of the characters in the book who is a scientist. This mainly stems from the character’s pursuit of perfection based on idealism. Hawthorne presents Aylmer as a person obsessed with achieving earthly perfection. After all, the story is set at a time when science was all the rage. This fact is shown at the start of the story where the author says that during those days, discoveries in science were equated to miracles. Scientists believed they were capable of achieving natural perfection in fields like physics and medicine and Aylmer is one such character. Hawthorne depicts Aylmer as a man who despite having a beautiful wife, still aims at making her perfect by removing her birthmark. He makes sure to show that Aylmer did in fact love his wife, Georgiana, and that he is not driven by hate. Rather, by his love of science to make the world perfect. He demonstrates this by stating that indeed, Aylmer had left the laboratory to be with his wife. In this light, it is clear that he critics Aylmer as a scientist and not as a husband. Despite the love for his wife, the love for science and perfection still lingers in his mind. Hawthorne is definitely of the view that such ideal perfection cannot be found in this world and seeks to teach Aylmer this lesson. He demonstrates this by allowing Aylmer to succeed in making Georgiana perfect in death but not in this life. He ends by depicting the scientist as having lost his happiness in a quest that cannot be attained,

 

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