Homework

Homework #3

The information need for this assignment is already been done in a previous assignment #2 just need to add to the ongoing assignment.

#1 ASSIGNMENT

Assignment 2: LASA 1: Final Project: Early Methods Section

Due Wednesday, April 12, 2017. In your final paper for this course, you will need to write a Methods section that is about 4 pages long where you will assess and evaluate the methods of research.  

In preparation for this particular section, answer the following questions thoroughly and provide justification/support. The more complete and detailed your answers for these questions, the better prepared you are to successfully write your final paper.

Please submit your answers as a single 4- to 6-page document as a numbered list; this will ensure you do not inadvertently miss a question.

Additionally, please submit a title page and a reference page in proper APA format.

    1. What is your research question?
    1. What is your hypothesis or hypotheses? What is the null hypothesis?
    1. How many participants would you like to use and why? What are the inclusion characteristics, i.e., what must they have in order to be included in your study (for example, gender, diagnosis, age, personality traits, etc.)? Are there any exclusion characteristics, i.e. are there certain characteristics that would exclude them from being in your study? Does the sample need to be diverse? Why or why not?
    1. What sampling technique will be used to collect your sample? What population does your sample generalize to?
    1. What are the variables in your study? HINT: Refer back to your hypothesis or hypotheses.
    1. Provide operational definitions for each variable.
    1. How will you measure each variable? Discuss the reliability and validity of these measures in general terms.
    1. What technique will be used for data collection (e.g., observation, survey, interview, archival, etc.)?
    1. What type of research design is being used?
    1. Briefly discuss the procedure that would be followed when conducting the research.
  1. What are some POTENTIAL ethical issues? How might they be addressed?

#2 THE EXAMPLE FOR THE ASSIGNMENT 

Final Project: Early Method Section

Final Project:  Early Method Section

  1. What is your research question?  My research question is “Does stress reduction efficacy vary between relaxation response treatment and mindfulness-based programs for female undergraduate students between the ages of 18-25?”  The research question is important because previous studies have only provided empirical evidence demonstrating the efficacy of each method on its own and a comparison of the methods within other controlled populations. Research has investigated the effects of these stress-reduction methods within specific subgroups of the population, but not within the population that is targeted in this study. It is also important because the majority of research has focused on the effects of stress-reduction techniques on medical students, healthcare professionals, and undergraduate pre-medical students (Jain, Shapiro, Swanick, Roesch, Mills, Bell, & Schwartz, 2007). Ample meta-analytic studies have investigated the efficacy of stress-reduction treatment on stress-related illnesses and disorders (Grossman, Niemann, Schmidt, & Walach, 2004). There is, however, a gap in the literature regarding a comparative analysis of Relaxation Response treatments and Mindfulness-based treatments for stress within the population of female undergraduate students that are not specializing in medicine and/or healthcare. The results of this study may provide empirical evidence regarding the most efficacious technique to be used when reducing stress for this population.
  2. What is your hypothesis or hypotheses? What is the null hypothesis?  My hypothesis is that female undergraduate students between the ages of 18-25 that suffer from unhealthy levels of stress are more likely to achieve higher levels of stress reduction through the use of mindfulness-based stress reduction treatment than through the use of the technique of relaxation response.  My null hypothesis is the efficacy of stress-reduction treatment does not differ between mindfulness-based programs and relaxation response techniques for female undergraduate students between the ages of 18-25.
  3. How many participants would you like to use and why?  The National Center for Education Statistics (2016) estimates that 11.7 million females attended undergraduate colleges and universities in the fall of 2016. According toBarlett, Kotrlik & Higgins (2001), the minimum required sample size for an empirical study for a specific and large population with a .05 alpha level should not be less than 100 participants. As this study will consist of three groups: control group (receiving no treatment), group receiving Relaxation Response treatment, and group receiving Mindfulness-based treatment the total desired number of participants will be 120 with 40 participants in each group. In order to reflect population diversity, each group will be statistically subdivided by ethnic background variable according to data from the United States Census Bureau (2016).  In each group, I will seek to include 23 whites, 8 Latinos, 6 African-Americans, 2 Asian-Americans, and 1 participant identified as mixed-race
  4. What are the inclusion characteristics, i.e., what must they have in order to be included in your study (for example, gender, diagnosis, age, personality traits, etc.)? The characteristics necessary for inclusion in this study will include a specific gender, age, education level, location of residence (USA) and current level of stress.  Are there any exclusion characteristics, i.e. are there certain characteristics that would exclude them from being in your study? The characteristics that would exclude someone from the study will include anyone who is not female, anyone who is not an undergraduate student, and anyone over 25 years of age, and any female who does not suffer from a measurable level of stress.  Does the sample need to be diverse?  Why or why not?  The sample does need to be diverse because the population of interest is female undergraduate students in the USA with a measureable level of stress. According to the US Census Bureau (2016), this is a highly diverse population.
  5. What sampling technique will be used to collect your sample? I will usethe nonprobability sampling technique of convenience sampling with an element of stratification to reflect diversity. This is necessary as I will have limited access to the population of interest.  Unlike random sampling that would draw a representative sample from the entire population, convenience sampling does not provide a representative sample as it only draws participants from a segment of the population that is easily and conveniently accessible (Argosy University, 2017). My convenience sample will involve surveying and treating female undergraduate students who agree to sign up for the study on specific college campuses and are contacted through posters, flyers, and online advertising. What population does your sample generalize to?   This sample will generalize to female undergraduate students in the United States between 18 and 25 years of age. It is important to note, however, that as this study is based on a convenience sample, care must be taken when generalizing the results to the population (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, & Zechmeister, 2015).
  6. What are the variables in your study? HINT: Refer back to your hypothesis or hypotheses.  The variables of the study include stress level, Mindfulness-based treatment technique, Relaxation Response treatment technique, and female undergraduate students.
  7. Provide operational definitions for each variable. Stress is defined as the physiological and psychological responses in face of threat, perceived or real, to the homeostasis and welfare of the individual (Chrousos & Gold, 1992). A female undergraduate student is any female between the ages of 18-25 who is taking undergraduate courses toward completing a bachelor’s degree within any accepted discipline in the United States. Mindfulness-based stress-reduction treatment is a structured 8-10 week program based on mindfulness techniques of silent awareness. Relaxation Responses techniques include yoga, meditation and exercise to achieve a reduction in stress levels by lowering blood pressure, slowing muscle activity and increasing mental alertness.
  8. How will you measure each variable? Discuss the reliability and validity of these measures in general terms.  During this experimental between-group designed study, I will be recording the relationship between female undergraduate students between the ages 18-25, type of relaxation technique employed, and the level of stress-reduction achieved. I will also be looking at a possible causal effect between relaxation technique and stress-reduction result. This means I will be measuring the psychological and physiological characteristics and responses of female undergraduate students and their response to the specific relaxation treatment received. Statistical results will express the reliability of the measure showing that the results are an accurate representation of the population, are consistent over time, and can be reproduced as explained in Joppe’s study (as cited in Golafshani, 2003). The results and measurements used are valid, in Joppe (as cited in Golafshani, 2003), if “the research truly measures what is intended to be measured.”  Validity and reliability will be further demonstrated to the extent that the results can be generalized to the general population (Golafshani, 2003).
  9. What technique will be used for data collection (e.g., observation, survey, interview, archival, etc.)?  I will use existing surveys to collect data because of their known reliability, the age group of the study, and the nature of the study.  The surveys that have proven to be reliable in the past include:  Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) which is designed to assess psychological distress and mood, and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) as a global measure of stress. Medical and blood tests to ascertain the physiological effects of stress levels will include resting heart and breathing rates, blood pressure readings, muscle tension, sleep patterns, and general health indicators (Esch, Fricchione & Stefano, 2003; Shapiro, Astin, Bishop, & Cordova, 2005).
  10. What type of research design is being used?  I will use an experimental between-group design because I am studying the effects and efficacy of two different types of stress-reduction treatments and how they differ for female undergraduate students with measurable levels of stress (Argosy University, 2017).  As the experimenter, I will manipulate the variable “Treatment type” for each group to try to determine causality, or in this case, which treatment provides greater stress-reduction efficacy (Ibid).
  11. Briefly discuss the procedure that would be followed when conducting the research.  Prior to conducting the research, I will meet with the participants to explain the study, the purpose and the steps involved. Stress-reduction treatment will be described and informed written consent will be obtained. The participants will be randomly divided into the 3 groups for the research. Surveys and questionnaires will be administered and completed. Medical tests will be administered in private for each individual with a healthcare professional. The results of the surveys, medical tests and consent forms will be filed separately and identified by a participant number to ensure anonymity and privacy.  Each group of 40 participants will be surveyed separately before they are informed which treatment they will receive. Participation will consist of two hours per week for the 8 weeks of the program. After the 8 week treatment period, the results will be analyzed for the purpose of demonstrating the more efficacious stress-reduction treatment for female undergraduate student in the United States. Each participant will receive financial compensation of $20 per week for their involvement in the study.
  12. What are some POTENTIAL ethical issues? How might they be addressed?  As this study involves private medical information, each participant will be informed of the steps to ensure the privacy and the anonymity of the results and of each participant. Participants will be given the choice to have the medical tests or to provide permission for this information to be obtained from their primary care physician. To reduce any stress that the study itself might generate, participants will have free access to counselling during and after the study. Participants will also be informed that they are free to withdraw from the study at any time with no penalty.

References

Argosy University. (2017). PSY302: Module Two. Retrieved February10, 2017 from http://myeclassonline.com

Argosy University. (2017). PSY302: Module Three. Retrieved February10, 2017 from http://myeclassonline.com

Bartlett, J. E., Kotrlik, J. W., & Higgins, C. C. (2001). Organizational Research: Determining Appropriate Sample Size for Survey Research. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 19, 43-50.

Chrousos, G. P., & Gold, P. W. (1992). The Concepts of Stress and Stress Systems Disorders. Journal of the American Medical Association, 267, 1244-1252.

Esch, T., Fricchione, G. L., & Stefano, G. B. (2003). The therapeutic use of the relaxation response in stress-related diseases. Medical Science Monitor, 9, 23-34.

Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research. The Qualitative Report, 8, 597-607.

Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt, S., & Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: A meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57(10), 35-43.

Jain, S., Shapiro, S. L., Swanick, S., Roesch, S. C., Mills, P. J., Bell, I., & Schwartz, G. E. R. (2007). A Randomized Controlled Trial of Mindfulness Meditation Versus Relaxation Training: Effects on Distress, Positive States of Mind, Rumination, and Distraction. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33(3), 11-21.

National Center for Education Statistics (2016). College and University Education: Fast Facts. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=372.

Shapiro, S. L., Astin, J. A., Bishop, S. R., & Cordova, M. (2005). Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Health Care Professionals: Results from a Randomized Trial. International Journal of Stress Management, 12, 164-176. DOI: 10.1037//1072-5245.12.2.164. 

Shaughnessy, J. J., Zechmeister, E. B., & Zechmeister, J. S. (2015) Research Methods in Psychology (10th ed.). McGraw-Hill: New York.

United States Census Bureau. (2016). Quick Facts: United States. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/table/PST045216/00

#3 THE INFORMATION THAT IS NEEDED FOR THE ASSIGNMENT

Annotated Bibliography: Driving Safety and Types of Distractions

Patricia Vela

Tutor: Research Methods | PSY302 A01

Faculty:  Kristine Spinks

April 05, 2017

Annotated Bibliography:Which driving distraction is most frequently present during the time of an auto accident?   

Hypothesis: Cell phone use is the most frequent driving distraction present during the time of an auto accident.

Distracted driving refers to driving while at the same time doing another movement that removes your consideration from driving. Diverted driving can expand the possibility of an engine vehicle crash. Thinks about show driver diversion because of innovation is as yet a key figure mishaps, albeit most respondents claim utilize just in halted activity. Controls and media consideration have brought about lessened innovation utilize while driving. The main genuine answer for stop diverted driving mishaps is to dispense with the diversion (Andrew, Noah, 2010).   

 Andrew, Noah. (2010). Road Safety. London: Rutledge.

In their 2010 published article on Road Safety, authors Andrew and Noah explain that all distractions are equal (there are no minor and major distractions). The authors are of the view that drivers should stop judging such distractions as texting to be minor distractions. In their view, there is no restriction to when a driver may chat. When their wireless rings or they get an approaching instant message or email, they need to react. Most don’t try to pull over or off the street. Most drivers likewise have a conviction that they are fit for multi-entrusting, so messaging while at the same time driving is not an issue in their brains.

Daniel, L., & Casper, A. (2012). Road Safety Tips. Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press.

According to authors Daniel and Casper, distractions reduce concentration on driving which leads to increased violation of traffic rules. The authors argue that albeit driving is a typical action, it can be somewhat perilous if the driver neglects to pay the proper measure of consideration regarding what is happening around them. It can be hard to give the fundamental measure of thoughtfulness regarding the street and others on it if occupied by travellers or mobile phones. To guarantee you are focusing on what is happening around you as you drive, practice some regular strategies to keep your concentration where it has a place: out and about.

Gideon, E., Michael, S., & Lamarck, J. (2014). Road Safety. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

In this article, author Gideon and Michael confirm that most accidents are caused by distractions. In other words, these authors imply that most accidents that have occurred could have avoided. According to their explanation, it is ideal to be sheltered than to be sad. Drivers ought to avert mischances by avoiding potential risk they can. Activity rules have been planned because of wellbeing principal. It considers security for all, including people on foot.

William, Taylor, A. E. N. K. C. (2011). Road Safety. London: Cambridge University Press.

Authors William and Taylor in their 2011 published article equate distractions during driving to signing an agreement to be killed. As per these authors, careless driving considerably raises your odds of being required in a mishap. Sadly, many individuals don’t understand that they’re driving carelessly because of diversions or outside impacts: mobile phone utilize, conversing with another driver in the auto, liquor, speeding, or notwithstanding eating or putting on cosmetics while driving.  

 Nathaniel, A., Joseph B. (2015). Road Safety Tips: Guidelines for Decision Makers on Road Safety Policy. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

In this article, authors Nathaniel and Joseph explain that Cell phone use is increasingly becoming the most frequent driving distraction present during the time of an auto accident. As per these authors, Cell phone use is increasingly turning out to be normal and is broadly considered dangerous because of its capacity for inflicting distracted riding and injuries. Due to the quantity of injuries which can be related to cell smartphone use at the same time as riding, a few jurisdictions have made the usage of a cell phone even as riding illegal. Many jurisdictions have enacted legal guidelines to ban hand held cellular telephone use. Nevertheless, many jurisdictions allow use of an arms-loose device, wherein the motive force talks the use of a microphone and a speakerphone.  

Lamarck, S. T. (2014). Road Traffic Safety. Amherst, Mass: HRD Press

Road traffic safety refers to the methods and measures used to prevent road users from being killed or seriously injured. Typical road users include pedestrians, cyclists, motorists, vehicle passengers, and passengers of on-road public transport (mainly buses and trams).

Jackson, A. (2016). Road Traffic Safety : 2nd Edition. Alresford: Management Pocketbooks.

Every year you have hundreds of people that die, and the high amount of resources for the lose of them being involved in a road crash. Most developing countries take the highest share for the roads and the lack of experience that comes with driving on the roads.

Kendrick, A. (2010). Road Traffic Safety. Hound mills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Road traffic crashes are one of the world’s largest public health and injury prevention problems. The problem is all the more acute because the victims are overwhelmingly healthy before their crashes. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 1 million people are killed on the world’s roads each year.

Defensive Driving – Safety Courses – learnatvivid.com‎ go2.learnatvivid.com/

Distracted driving is a dangerous epidemic on America’s roadways, and

April is distracted driving awareness month. 43 states have banned texting

 while driving. More than 3,000 lives per year are lost and hundreds of

thousands are injured in distracted driving crashes.

Distraction and Teen Crashes: Even Worse than We Thought

Newsroom.aaa.com/2015/03/distraction-teen-crashes

WASHINGTON, D.C. (March 25, 2015) – The most comprehensive research ever conducted

into crash videos of teen drivers has found significant evidence that distracted driving is

likely much more serious a problem than previously known, according to the AAA

Foundation for Traffic Safety. The unprecedented video analysis finds that distraction was a

factor in nearly 6 out of 10 moderate-to-severe teen crashes, which is four times as many as

official estimates based on police reports.

Annotated Bibliography: Driving Safety and Types of Distractions Outline

    1. Introduction 

      1. Research question: Which driving distraction is most frequently present during the time of an auto accident? 

      2. Revised hypothesis: Cell phone use is the most frequent driving distraction present during the time of an auto accident.

    2. Literature Review

      1. Brief description of distractions

Andrew, Noah. (2010). Road Safety. London: Rutledge.

Jackson, A. (2016). Road Traffic Safety : 2nd Edition. Alresford: Management Pocketbooks.

      1. Impacts of detractions while driving

Daniel, L., & Casper, A. (2012). Road safety tips. Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press.

Kendrick, A. (2010). Road Traffic Safety. Hound mills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

      1.  Cell phone use as the main causes of road accidents

Gideon, E., Michael, S., & Lamarck, J. (2014). Road Safety. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.  

Lamarck, S. T. (2014). Road Traffic Safety. Amherst, Mass: HRD Press.  

      1. List factors that put men at risk for depression

        1. Sending text messages

        2. Making phone calls

William, Taylor, A. E. N. K. C. (2011). Road Safety. London: Cambridge University Press.

Philip, K., & Charles, Y. (2013). Road Traffic Safety. Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press.

      1. Demographic characteristics

        1. Relationship between cell phone usage and accidents

        2. Relationship between road accidents and negligence

Nathaniel, A. (2015). Road Safety Tips: Guidelines for Decision Makers on Road Safety Policy. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. 

Reagan, T., Michael, H., & Lamarck, J. (2015). Road Safety. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.  

Stratified Sampling

 Stratified samples would be the one for this assignment to use. It would cover the

research that I would like to cover while doing this experiment. Being able to have

enough information on this topic and making sure there is plenty of response given to

conduct the experiment. It would generalize to the population, because it would identify

 the individuals that we want in this study. Having certain health related factors. As for

ethical issues, we would be using the pre-existing conditions that the individual might

have.The researcher first identifies the people in the population who have the desired

characteristics, and then randomly selects a sample of them. The ethical issue that we

might face would be not getting the consent needed for the experiment or having

individual volunteer for the experiment.

References

Andrew, Noah. (2010). Road Safety. London: Rutledge.

Daniel, L., & Casper, A. (2012). Road safety tips. Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press.

Gideon, E., Michael, S., & Lamarck, J. (2014). Road Safety. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.  

Jackson, A. (2016). Road Traffic Safety : 2nd Edition. Alresford: Management Pocketbooks.

Kendrick, A. (2010). Road Traffic Safety. Hound mills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lamarck, S. T. (2014). Road Traffic Safety. Amherst, Mass: HRD Press.  

William, Taylor, A. E. N. K. C. (2011). Road Safety. London: Cambridge University Press

Nathaniel, A. (2015). Road Safety Tips: Guidelines for Decision Makers on Road Safety Policy. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. 

Philip, K., & Charles, Y. (2013). Road Traffic Safety. Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press.

Distraction and Teen Crashes: Even Worse than We Thought

Newsroom.aaa.com/2015/03/distraction-teen-crashes

"Get 15% discount on your first 3 orders with us"
Use the following coupon
"FIRST15"

Order Now