List the stages of the viral life cycle and briefly describe the principal events in the stages of the life cycle of a virus in the Retroviridae family.


Your doctor diagnosed your illness as a bacterial sinus infection and prescribed a course of antibiotics. You also gave informed consent to participate in the doctor’s research study on antibiotics. As part of the study you went to the clinic every day to have a sample from the infection taken and analyzed. Before starting on the antibiotics the bacteria were susceptible to the antibiotic; however later in the week after starting the antibiotic treatment the bacteria in your infection were resistant to the antibiotic. Results of DNA analysis of the bacteria causing your infection showed that the resistant bacteria and susceptible bacteria differed only by a gene that encodes the protein target of the antibiotic such that the antibiotic was unable to bind to the target site on the resistant bacterial cells..

Which of the following three hypotheses is most likely? Explain how the results support that hypothesis and what you learned about antibiotic resistance in week 4 topic “Antibiotic Resistance”. What is a possible mechanism for the change in the gene?

A) You developed a tolerance* for the antibiotic
B) The bacteria infecting you developed a tolerance* for the antibiotic.
C) The bacteria infecting you evolved to be resistant to the antibiotic.

*Tolerance is a nongenetic change in which the response to a specific drug and concentration is weaker after repeated use.

Describe how the first and second lines of defense of your innate immune system can protect you from an influenza A infection. Recall from week 7 course content topic “About Influenza Viruses” that influenza is a respiratory disease. Be specific about the tissues, cells, and processes involved and as related to influenza or other respiratory viral diseases. You might find “The Innate Immune System Study Guide” in course Module 5 helpful.
List the stages of the viral life cycle and briefly describe the principal events in the stages of the life cycle of a virus in the Retroviridae family and explain what makes viruses in that family difficult to eliminate from the host. Name a virus in that family.
Explain why a secondary antibody response to an antigen may prevent a bacterial or viral disease when the primary adaptive immune response to that antigen did not protect the person from the disease. Be specific about the type of cells and products involved in the responses.
Read the following Science Daily article:
Write a brief summary (one paragraph) about the study that answers the following questions: What was the purpose of the clinical trial? What was the overall design of the trial? What were the independent and dependent variables? What was the control and was it a positive or a negative control? What were the results of the experiments and the major importance of the findings? Did the trial demonstrate that the vaccine prevented dengue? Why or why not? Summarize the results in a table. In your summary explain the following terms: virus challenge study, viremia, and attenuated vaccine

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