The instructions for the paper is uploaded in the file labeled research doc sample. This is how the paper must be formatted and it is an example of what should be incorporated in the paper. Much of the information that needs to be incorporated in the paper is uploaded in the files attached. Because my own research has already been done on the subject, compile the files I provided as a term paper. the writer just have to follow the research doc sample as a guide and use the files I attached to support the body of the paper. The writer can use the works I uploaded verbatim because they are my own words. in addition If the writer needs more information to incorporate to make the paper the standard 6 pages, the writer can use the cited resources. The subject for the term paper pertains to race as a factor for sentencing of drug offenses. Only use the cited resources provided. Thanks
I. Problem Statement
In New Jersey, educators have been dealing with the dilemma of effective teacher evaluations for the past three decades. The No Child Left Behind Act, (NCLB) which was passed in 2001, was federal legislation designed to reform the Elementary and Second Education Act (ESEA) and link federal dollars to performance in our schools. The overall purpose of the act is to ensure that in every classroom; every child can enjoy the benefits of research based curriculum with standards based instruction taught by a well prepared teacher in a safe environment. The NCLB holds states, districts, schools responsible for the progress of their students. Ultimately the burden for the lofty goals set by NCLB fall to the person deemed to have the most profound effect on student achievement, the classroom teacher. The current educational guidelines for teacher evaluations are left up to the individual school boards. The boards must operate within a framework mandated by the state department of education; however this mainly deals with scheduling the classroom observations. New teachers are required to be evaluated three times per year prior to April 31st and counseled after each of their evaluations. Non-probationary teachers are evaluated once a year. Currently New Jersey does not link teacher evaluations with student achievement, and does not include student achievement levels as a requirement for tenure. What relationship if any exists between teacher evaluations and teacher practice and instructional change? Do these changes impact student learning / performance as defined by the No Child Left Behind Act?
II. The Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of teacher evaluations on teacher practice, classroom instructional change and student learning in a moderate sized school district in Middlesex county New Jersey. A primary principle of teacher supervision and evaluation is that the purpose is to enhance teaching skills with the ultimate goal of enhancing student achievement. There is a well established generalization that teacher expertise is causally related to student achievement (Marzano).
This study will be guided by the following questions:
• What is the teacher evaluation process in one New Jersey school district?
1. How does the district define and promote teacher effectiveness?
2. To what extent are multiple measures included in decisions about teacher effectiveness?
3. How does the school district evaluation process impact teacher behavior?
4. Has a link been established between the teacher evaluation process and student achievement?
I. Literature Review
Information on this topic will be examined and used as a guide to further my research and add to the general body of knowledge available on this topic. The literary review would be completed utilizing Boote & Beile’s Literature Review Scoring Rubric.
This research will be a case study of a moderate sized school district in Middlesex county New Jersey using a mixed method approach integrating qualitative and quantitative data. The data collection will involve text information derived from focus groups and interviews as well as numeric information obtained from instruments. The researcher intends to determine if there is a relationship between the teacher evaluation system in the identified school district, and teacher practice, classroom instructional change and student learning.
Description of Population / Sample
This research will be conducted by studying students and teachers at a moderate sized school district in Middlesex county New Jersey. The school district is comprised of two elementary schools, one middle school and one high school. The enrollment of the school district is 2500 students, with approximately 200 students in each of the grade levels. The student demographic makeup of the school is 35% Hispanic, 32% African American, 30% White and 3% listed as other. The administration at each school consists of a principal and one assistant principal. There are 150 teachers, all of whom are tenured at the school. There are no probationary teachers in the school district. The teacher demographic makeup is 65% White, 18% African American, 13% Hispanic and 4% Asian. Females represent 68% of the faculty to 32% for males, while the administration is 100% male. Only 32% of students receive free or discounted school lunch.
II. Selection of Sample
Students will be randomly selected from grade levels 5 – 12 to participate in focus groups. 2 students from each of the grade levels will be chosen, and the students will be broken down into two 8 student focus groups. The parents of students selected to participate in the focus groups will be notified of all topics to be discussed, and students will only be allowed to participate with their parents signed consent. One focus group will contain middle school students and the other will contain high school students. Focus group topics for students will include:
• Outcome Assessment
• Grading Rubrics
• Student Learning Standards
All school principals and their assistants will be interviewed individually and surveyed. All teachers in the school district will be asked to participate in the study by means of survey. Ten teachers, who are representative of the population, will be randomly selected to participate in a focus group.
II. Data Collection
All forms will be submitted in May to the board office for approval. Interviews with administrators will take place over the summer, and faculty and administrators will be emailed a link to the survey to complete by August 15th. Focus groups for the students and the faculty will be held during the first week of October. All data will be collected by the 16th of October.
All required approvals will be collected prior to any interviews, distribution of surveys or focus group meetings. Surveys will be made available through Survey Monkey and will contain no identifying features to insure anonymity. Once collected data will be stored on a secure computer and randomized to protect the anonymity of the participants.
It will be difficult to generalize the findings of this study to all school districts because of the variations from district to district. These variations include, but are not limited to; student population size, ethnic diversity, financial solvency and teacher experience. Teachers, students and administrators that participate may not accurately represent the insight and perspectives of their peers in other school districts.
Significance of this Study
This study is important for several reasons. The primary reason, however, is that it can identify practices that will help students achieve greater success in their learning. This greater level of success will mean that high school graduates will be more literate, competent, highly skilled and better prepared to either enter the workforce or continue onto to higher education better prepared to make positive contributions to society.
Among the 2.3 million people in prisons in the United States, 25 percent are convicted for drugs. Despite the fact that whites engage in drug trafficking more than African Americans, reports indicate that the latter are incarcerated on drug charges 10 times, more than the whites do (Athon, 2013). Once incarnated, these drug offenders are often locked up for lengthy periods. There have been numerous calls for mandatory minimums to be abolished because they propagate unnecessary harsh sentences and create racial disparities. This study seeks to establish the validity of these statistics and allegations as a basis for informed future decision.
The overarching aim of this research is to establish whether race is a key factor when a judge is determining the minimum or maximum sentencing guidelines of an individual drug offender. The research questions that will be addressed in the research are:
1. Is race a determinant in sentencing drug offenders
2. Does race play a role in the number of maximum period offender is jailed for drug trafficking
3. Is there disparity of inmates serving jail term
The study will involve 40 respondents (30 prisoners convicted for drug trafficking and 10 social workers). The findings will then be analyzed and interpreted using frequency distribution tables and the respective percentages. The research will mainly seek to collect data from members of a population in order to determine the status of that population with respect to the outlined variables therefore will conduct a survey.
The exploratory research approach will be used for this study. The field of inquiry for the focused study of the phenomena are not well understood and interrelationships not well known. This made the inductive-based and qualitative research methodology the most appropriate for this study.
Following the emergent nature of the problem presented in the paper, in-depth interviews were deemed the most appropriate data collection tool for the study. In-depth interviews are most appropriate when collecting information concerning emerging themes and allow researchers enter into individual participant’s perspective. In addition, this approach allows researchers to understand things such as feelings, interpretations, and experiences that cannot be captured through other ways. The tool used in the in-depth interview was the semi-structured approach. The study involves establishing available statistics and experiences concerning disparities in convictions of drug traffickers based on race. In this regard, semi-structured interviews were appropriate since it is less inclined in providing a focus. A total of 40 participants will be selected with the first criterion ensuring a balance between gender, income, and age and the second consideration being a requirement that participants must be serving drug convicts.
Data Analysis Plan
Data analysis is the process of organizing the information collected and relating them to the research questions (Burns, 2014). This study will generate both qualitative and quantitative data. The data collected will be coded and organized in relation to the study objectives. All quantitative data will be presented using distribution tables, pie charts and graphs. Qualitative data will be analyzed thematically based on research objectives and presented, interpreted and discussed using descriptive narrative.
Treatment of inmates’ mental illness
Various literatures have documented ineffectiveness in prison health system for treating inmates with mental problems. Ditton, & United States, (1999) highlights major mile stones in prison treatment services and their failures in offering mental treatments to probationers. The study will aim to establish the effectiveness of mental treatment for prisoners in United States prisons.
1. Is the prison system ineffective about treatment programs for special prisoner populations concerning the mentally ill?
2. Are the population of inmates properly assessed for mental illnesses?
3. Do the social workers have the necessary background in experience and education to best serve the mentally ill?
4. Are there any extended human or social services available to mental ill inmates after their re-entry into the community?
The study will involve 30 respondents (10 inmates still in prison and 10 released inmates with a period of two months, and 10 prison attendants). The data will be collected from members in order to determine their access of health care in and out of the prison. .
The research design will be exploratory with inductive-based and qualitative research methodology. In qualitative aspect, observations will be the main focus.
The data will be collected through in-depth interviews and observations. This will allow the research to engage the participants on the key issues in an objective approach. Therefore, the methodology will help to obtain most accurate information and consecutive data for analysis. Observations will be made on the current health care status for current inmates and those leaving the prison at the time of the study. Randomized selection criteria will be used to ensure that the 30 participants form a good representation of the general population. This will be important in order to obtain a good represented data.
Data Analysis Plan
Data analysis is the process of organizing the information collected and relating them to the research questions (Burns, 2014). The data collected will be classified based on the research questions and objectives in order to make sound inferences for the study. The data analysis will be carried through excel spreadsheet and statistical package of social science, (SPSS). In order to allow the audience to understand the study, the data will be presented in form of charts, graphs, and tables.